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The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2010. Bird bones may be hollow, but they are also heavy. Science Daily [Internet],
  • Ames, P. L. 1971. The morphology of the syrinx in passerine birds. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 37:1–194.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Barker, F. K., A. Cibois, P. Schikler, J. Feinstein, and J. Cracraft. 2004. Phylogeny and diversification of the largest avian radiation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:11040-11045.
  • Barker, F. K., G. F. Barrowclough, and J. G. Groth. 2002. A phylogenetic hypothesis for passerine birds; Taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269:295-308.
  • Beresford, P., F. K. Barker, P. G. Ryan, and T. M. Crowe. 2005. African endemics span the tree of songbirds (Passeri): Molecular systematics of several evolutionary "enigmas". Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 272:849-858.
  • Boles, W. E. (1995). The world's oldest songbird. Nature 374, 21-22.
  • Brown, J. L. (1987). Helping and Communal Breeding in Birds. In Monographs in Behavioral Ecolog. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Chesser, R. T. and J. ten Have. 2007. On the phylogenetic position of the scrub-birds (Passeriformes : Menurae: Atrichornithidae) of Australia. Journal of Ornithology 148(4):471-476.
  • Cracraft, J. (1988). The major clades of birds. In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Volume 1: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, vol. 35A (ed. M.J.Benton), pp. 339-361. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Cracraft, J., and J. Feinstein. 2000. What is not a bird of paradise? Molecular and morphological evidence places Macgregoria in the Meliphagidae and the Cnemophilinae near the base of the corvoid tree. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267:233-241.
  • Diamond, J. (1986). Biology of birds of paradise and bowerbirds. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17, 17-37.
  • Dumbacher, J. P., Beehler, B. M., Spande, T. F., Garraffo, H. M. and Daly, J. W. (1992). Homobatrachotoxin in the genus Pitohui : chemical defence in birds? Science 258, 799-801.
  • Dumont ER. 2010. Bone density and the lightweight skeletons of birds. Proc. R. Soc. B.
  • Edwards, S. V. and Naeem, S. (1993). The phylogenetic component of cooperative breeding in perching birds. The American Naturalist 141, 754-789.
  • Ericson PGP, Christidis L, Irestedt M, Norman JA. 2002. Systematic affinities of the lyrebirds (Passeriformes : Menura), with a novel classification of the major groups of passerine birds. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 25:53-62.
  • Ericson, P. G. P., L. Christidis, A. Cooper, M. Irestedt, J. Jackson, U. S. Johansson, and J. A. Norman. 2002b. A Gondwanan origin of passerine birds supported by DNA sequences of the endemic New Zealand wrens. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269:235-241.
  • Ericson, P. G. P., L. Christidis, M. Irestedt, and J. A. Norman. 2002a. Systematic affinities of the lyrebirds (Passeriformes: Menura), with a novel classification of the major groups of passerine birds. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 25:53-62.
  • Ericson, P. G. P., U. S. Johansson, and T. J. Parsons. 2000. Major divisions in oscines revealed by insertions in the nuclear gene c-myc: a novel gene in avian phylogenetics. Auk 117:1069-1078.
  • Feduccia, A. (1995). Explosive radiation in Tertiary birds and mammals. Science 267, 637-638.
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
  • Gray, D. A. (1996). Carotenoids and sexual dichromatism in North American passerine birds. The American Naturalist 148, 453-480.
  • Hackett, S. J., Kimball, R. T., Reddy, S., Bowie, R. C. K., Braun, E. L., Braun, M. J., Chojnowski, J. L., Cox, W. A., Han, K.-L., Harshman, J., Huddleston, C. J., Marks, B. D., Miglia, K. J., Moore, W. A., Sheldon, F. H.,
  • Harshman, J. 2007. Classification and phylogeny of birds. Pages 1-35 in Reproductive biology and phylogeny of birds (B. G. M. Jamieson, ed.). Science Publishers, Inc., Enfield, NH.
  • Irestedt, M. and J. I. Ohlson. 2008. The division of the major songbird radiation into Passerida and ‘core Corvoidea’ (Aves: Passeriformes) — the species tree vs. gene trees. Zoologica Scripta, doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2007.00321.x
  • J. M. Teal, Energy flow in the salt marsh ecosystem of Georgia, Ecology 43(4):614-624, from p. 616 (1962).
  • Jønsson, K.A. and J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves: Passeri). Zoologica Scripta 35:149-186.
  • Jønsson, K.A., J. Fjeldså, P.G.P. Ericson, and M. Irestedt. 2007. Systematic placement of an enigmatic Southeast Asian taxon Eupetes macrocerus and implications for the biogeography of a main songbird radiation, the Passerida. Biology Letters 3(3):323-326.
  • Kroodsma, D. E. and Miller, E. H. (1996). Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Birds. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Nee, S., Mooers, A., and Harvey, P. H. (1992). Tempo and mode of evolution revealed from molecular phylogenies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 89, 8322-8326.
  • Olson, S. L. (1989). Aspects of global avifaunal dynamics during the Cenozoic. In Proceedings of the XIX International Ornithological Congress, vol. 29, pp. 2023-2029. Christchurch, New Zealand.
  • Prum, R. O. (1994). Phylogenetic analysis of alternative social behavior in the manakins (Aves: Pipridae). Evolution 48, 1657-1665.
  • R. F. Johnston, Predation by short-eared owls on a Salicornia salt marsh, Wilson Bull. 68(2):91-102, from p. 99 (1956).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 287 (1947).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 288 (1947).
  • Raikow, R. J. (1982). Monophyly of the Passeriformes: test of a phylogenetic hypothesis. Auk 99, 431-455.
  • Raikow, R. J. (1986). Why are there so many kinds of passerine birds? Systematic Zoology 35, 255-259.
  • Sibley, C. G. and Ahlquist, J. E. (1990). Phylogeny and Classification of Birds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Sibley, C. G., and J. A. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds, Yale U. Press, New Haven.
  • Wilson, A. C. (1989). Time scale for bird evolution. Proceedings of the XIX International Ornithological Congress 19, 1912-1917.
  • WoRMS (2015). Passeriformes. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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