The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Barker, F. K. and S. M. Lanyon. 2000. The impact of parsimony weighting schemes on inferred relationships among toucans and neotropical barbets (Aves : Piciformes). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 15:215-234.
  • Burton, P. J. K. 1984. Anatomy and evolution of feeding apparatus in the avian orders Coraciiformes and Piciformes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 47:331-443.
  • Cracraft, J., F. K. Barker, M. J. Braun, J. Harshman, G. Dyke, J. Feinstein, S. Stanley, A. Cibois, P. Schikler, P. Beresford, J. Garcia-Moreno, M. D. Sorenson, T. Yuri, and D. P. Mindell. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among modern birds (Neornithes): Toward an avian tree of life. Pages 468-489 in Assembling the tree of life (J. Cracraft and M. J. Donoghue, eds.). Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Johansson US, Ericson PGP. 2003. Molecular support for a sister group relationship between Pici and Galbulae (Piciformes sensu Wetmore 1960). J. Avian Biol. 34:185-197.
  • Lanyon, S.M. and J.G. Hall. 1994. Re-examination of barbet monophyly using mitochondrial-DNA sequence data. Auk 111:389-397.
  • Mayr, G. 2001. The earliest fossil record of a modern-type piciform birds from the late Oligocene of Germany. J. Ornithol. 142:2–6.
  • Mayr, G., A. Manegold, and U. S. Johansson. 2003. Monophyletic groups within "higher land birds": Comparison of morphological and molecular data. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Research 41:233-248.
  • Moyle, R.G. 2004. Phylogenetics of barbets (Aves : Piciformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30:187-200.
  • Prum, R.O. 1988. Phylogenetic interrelationships of the barbets (Aves: Capitonidae) and toucans (Aves: Ramphastidae) based on morphology with comparisons to DNA-DNA hybridization. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 92:313-343.
  • Short, L. and J. Horne 2001. Toucans, Barbets, and Honeyguides: Ramphastidae, Capitonidae and Indicatoridae. Bird Families of the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.
  • Sibley, C. G., and B. L. Monroe Jr. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world, Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Sibley, C. G., and J. A. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds, Yale U. Press, New Haven.
  • Simpson, S. F. and J. Cracraft. 1981. The phylogenetic relationships of the Piciformes (Class Aves). Auk 98:481–494.
  • Webb, D. M. and W. S. Moore. 2005. A phylogenetic analysis of woodpeckers and their allies using 12S, Cyt b, and COI nucleotide sequences (class Aves; order Piciformes). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 36:233–248.
  • WoRMS (2015). Piciformes. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!