The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Brightsmith, D. J. 2005. Competition, predation and nest niche shifts among tropical cavity nesters: phylogeny and natural history evolution of parrots (Psittaciformes) and trogons (Trogoniformes). Journal of Avian Biology 36:64-73.
  • Collar, N.J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). Pages 280-477 in Handbook of the Birds of the World. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, eds. BirdLife International and Lynx Editions, Cambridge, UK and Barcelona.
  • Forshaw, J. M. 2006. Parrots of the World. Princeton University Press.
  • Forshaw, J. and W. T. Cooper. 2002 Australian Parrots, 3rd edn. Robina Press, Queensland, Australia.
  • Higgins, P. J. 1999 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, vol. 4: Parrots to Dollarbird. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Juniper, T. and M. Parr. 1998. Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Miyaki, C. Y., S. R. Matioli, T. Burke, and A. Wajntal. 1998. Parrot evolution and paleogeographical events: mitochondrial DNA evidence. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15:544-551.
  • Wright, T. F., E. E. Schirtzinger, T. Matsumoto, J. R. Eberhard, G. R. Graves, J. J. Sanchez, S. Capelli, H. Muller, J. Scharpegge, G. K. Chambers, and R. C. Fleischer. 2008. A multilocus molecular phylogeny of the parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan origin during the Cretaceous.Molecular Biology and Evolution 25(10):2141-2156; doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160.
  • de Kloet, R. S. and S. R. de Kloet. 2005. The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36:706-721.


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