The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Ahmad, S. 1983. Herbivorous Insects. New York City, New York: Academic Press.
  • Beccaloni G., Scoble M., Kitching I., Simonsen T., Robinson G., Pitkin B., Hine A. & Lyal C. (2015). LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (version 12.3, Jan 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Carter, D. 1992. Butterflies and Moths. New York City, New York: Dorling Kindersley, Inc..
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Klots, A. 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies of North America, East of the Great Plains. Boston, Massachusets: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Pelham, Jonathan P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, vol. 40. xiv + 658
  • Scott, J. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Struttmann, J. 2004. "Butterflies of North America/Butterflies of Nebraska" (On-line). Accessed 12/22/04 at
  • Waldbauer, G. 1996. Insects through the Seasons. London, England: Harvard University Press.


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