Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Atelopus andinus are slender toads with type male of this species reach 28 mm and type female 34.9 mm in terms of total length. The head is approximately as long as it is wide. Total leg length is slightly shorter than snout vent length. And the foot is about a third of the snout vent length. Their skin is highly granular with a spiny texture that is concentrated on their eyelids, dorsolatera area, and posterior end. The limbs are less granular. Otherwise the description is similar to that of Atelopus spumarius (Rivero 1968).

Atelopus andinuscan be differentiated from other Atelopus species by its grandular skin and color pattern. Specifically, Atelopus andinus is differentiated from Atelopus spumarius by having more dense tubercles, especially on the eyelid, dorsolateral area, and posterior end. Additionally, the dorsolateral band and dorsal spots are tan instead of ranging from green to green-yellow in Atelopus spumarius (Rivero 1968).

Atelopus andinus has a black dorsum with a tan dorsolateral band and tan dorsal spots (Rivero 1968). They exhibit bright colors, which serve as visual warnings that these frogs do secrete toxins in their skin (Lotters 2003).

The species authority is: Rivero, J.A. 1968. More on the Atelopus (Amphibia, Salientia) from western South America.Caribbean Journal of Science: 19-29.Atelopus andinus was originally described as a subspecies to Atelopus spumarius (Rivero 1968).

  • Duellman, W.E., Lynch, J.D. (1969). ''Description of Atelopus Tadpoles and Their Relevance to the Atelopoid Classication.'' Herpetologica, 25(4), 231-240.
  • Lotters, S. (2003). ''On the Systematics of the Harlequin Frogs (Amphibia: Bufonidae: Atelopus) From Amazonia. III: A New, Remarkably Dimorphic Species From the Cordillera Azul, Peru.'' Salamandra, 39(3/4), 169-180.
  • Lötters, Stefan, Salas, Antonio, Angulo, Ariadne, Icochea, Javier, Reynolds, Robert, and La Marca Enrique 2004. Atelopus andinus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 11 April 2014.
  • Rivero, J.A. (1968). ''More on the Atelopus (Amphibia, Salientia) from western South America.'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 8(1-2), 19-29.
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Distribution

Distribution and Habitat

Atelopus andinus species is found in the upper the Río Pisqui, (Departamento Loreto), Río Biabo Valley (northern versant of the Cordillera Azul) (Departamento de San Martín), and Río Cachiyacu (on the border of Departamentos San Martín and Loreto), Peru. The toad’s recorded altitudinal range is between 1,000 - 2,000 m. This is a terrestrial species that inhabits submontane tropical forests. Breeding is thought to take place in streams. This species is thought to be heavily affected by habitat change, therefore it is unlikely to be found in altered or degraded habitats (Lotters et al. 2004).

  • Duellman, W.E., Lynch, J.D. (1969). ''Description of Atelopus Tadpoles and Their Relevance to the Atelopoid Classication.'' Herpetologica, 25(4), 231-240.
  • Lotters, S. (2003). ''On the Systematics of the Harlequin Frogs (Amphibia: Bufonidae: Atelopus) From Amazonia. III: A New, Remarkably Dimorphic Species From the Cordillera Azul, Peru.'' Salamandra, 39(3/4), 169-180.
  • Lötters, Stefan, Salas, Antonio, Angulo, Ariadne, Icochea, Javier, Reynolds, Robert, and La Marca Enrique 2004. Atelopus andinus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 11 April 2014.
  • Rivero, J.A. (1968). ''More on the Atelopus (Amphibia, Salientia) from western South America.'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 8(1-2), 19-29.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:96
Specimens with Sequences:149
Specimens with Barcodes:73
Species:12
Species With Barcodes:10
Public Records:33
Public Species:3
Public BINs:4
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Barcode data

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Conservation

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Atelopus andinus is diurnal. When these frogs lay eggs, they come out in stringed clusters that are unpigmented in torrential streams. Based on the study of other Atelopus tadpoles, it could be likely that tadpoles of this species would possess a large ventral mouth, suctorial disk, a median anal tube, and breathe by using buccal pumping. (Duellman and Lynch 1969). These frogs prey primarily on small insects and other small organisms (Lotters 2003).

  • Duellman, W.E., Lynch, J.D. (1969). ''Description of Atelopus Tadpoles and Their Relevance to the Atelopoid Classication.'' Herpetologica, 25(4), 231-240.
  • Lotters, S. (2003). ''On the Systematics of the Harlequin Frogs (Amphibia: Bufonidae: Atelopus) From Amazonia. III: A New, Remarkably Dimorphic Species From the Cordillera Azul, Peru.'' Salamandra, 39(3/4), 169-180.
  • Lötters, Stefan, Salas, Antonio, Angulo, Ariadne, Icochea, Javier, Reynolds, Robert, and La Marca Enrique 2004. Atelopus andinus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 11 April 2014.
  • Rivero, J.A. (1968). ''More on the Atelopus (Amphibia, Salientia) from western South America.'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 8(1-2), 19-29.
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Threats

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

The main threats to Atelopus andinus species are habitat degradation, destruction, and disease. Currently the population is declining. This species is present in the Parque Nacional Cordillera Azul. A disease management program is likely needed for successful conservation due to this species vulnerability to chytridiomycosis (Lotters et al. 2004).

  • Duellman, W.E., Lynch, J.D. (1969). ''Description of Atelopus Tadpoles and Their Relevance to the Atelopoid Classication.'' Herpetologica, 25(4), 231-240.
  • Lotters, S. (2003). ''On the Systematics of the Harlequin Frogs (Amphibia: Bufonidae: Atelopus) From Amazonia. III: A New, Remarkably Dimorphic Species From the Cordillera Azul, Peru.'' Salamandra, 39(3/4), 169-180.
  • Lötters, Stefan, Salas, Antonio, Angulo, Ariadne, Icochea, Javier, Reynolds, Robert, and La Marca Enrique 2004. Atelopus andinus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 11 April 2014.
  • Rivero, J.A. (1968). ''More on the Atelopus (Amphibia, Salientia) from western South America.'' Caribbean Journal of Science, 8(1-2), 19-29.
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Wikipedia

Atelopus

Atelopus is a large genus of true toads, commonly known as harlequin toads or stubfoot toads, from Central and South America, ranging as far north as Costa Rica and as far south as Bolivia. Atelopus species are small, generally brightly colored, and diurnal. Most species are associated with mid- to high-elevation streams. This genus has been greatly affected by amphibian declines, and many species are now considered endangered, while others already are extinct. While threatened by habitat loss, pollution, and introduced species, the primary cause of these declines appears to be the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.[1][2]

New Atelopus species are discovered with some regularity, and many new species have been described in the last decade. Among others, a new subspecies, popularly dubbed the purple fluorescent frog, was discovered in 2007 by scientists Paul Ouboter and Jan Mol during a follow-up survey of the Nassau plateau in Suriname.[3] Leeanne Alonso from Conservation International, the organisation that led the expedition, said this frog may be threatened by illegal gold mining.[4] It was described as a new subspecies of Atelopus hoogmoedi (itself considered a subspecies of A. spumarius by some), named A. h. nassaui in 2012.[5]

Species[edit]

Common nameBinomial name
Andes stubfoot toadAtelopus andinus Rivero, 1968
Angelito stubfoot toadAtelopus angelito Ardila-Robayo and Ruiz-Carranza, 1998
Ardila's stubfoot toadAtelopus ardila Coloma, Duellman, Almendariz, Ron, Teran-Valdez, and Guayasamin, 2010
Atelopus arsyecue Rueda-Almonacid, 1994
Arthur's stubfoot toadAtelopus arthuri Peters, 1973
Rio Pescado stubfoot toadAtelopus balios Peters, 1973
Azuay stubfoot toadAtelopus bomolochos Peters, 1973
Boulenger's stubfoot toadAtelopus boulengeri Peracca, 1904
Rio Carauta stubfoot toadAtelopus carauta Ruiz-Carranza & Hernández-Camacho, 1978
Venezuelan yellow frog or La Carbonera stubfoot toadAtelopus carbonerensis Rivero, 1974
Guajira stubfoot toadAtelopus carrikeri Ruthven, 1916
Darien stubfoot toad or Toad Mountain harlequin frogAtelopus certus Barbour, 1923
Chiriqui harlequin frogAtelopus chiriquiensis Shreve, 1936
Chocó stubfoot toadAtelopus chocoensis Lötters, 1992
Atelopus chrysocorallus La Marca, 1996
Rio Faisanes stubfoot toadAtelopus coynei Miyata, 1980
Veragua stubfoot toadAtelopus cruciger (Lichtenstein & Martens, 1856)
Atelopus dimorphus Lötters, 2003
Huila stubfoot toadAtelopus ebenoides Rivero, 1963
Elegant stubfoot toadAtelopus elegans (Boulenger, 1882)
Atelopus epikeisthos Lötters, Schulte & Duellman, 2005
Carabaya stubfoot toadAtelopus erythropus Boulenger, 1903
Malvasa stubfoot toadAtelopus eusebianus Rivero & Granados-Díaz, 1993
Atelopus eusebiodiazi Venegas, Catenazzi, Siu-Ting & Carrillo, 2008
Atelopus exiguus Boettger, 1892
Atelopus famelicus Rivero & Morales, 1995
Forest stubfoot toadAtelopus farci Lynch, 1993
Cayenne stubfoot toadAtelopus flavescens Duméril & Bibron, 1841
Central Coast stubfoot toadAtelopus franciscus Lescure, 1974
Antado stubfoot toadAtelopus galactogaster Rivero & Serna, 1993
Pirri Range harlequin frogAtelopus glyphus Dunn, 1931
Guanujo stubfoot toadAtelopus guanujo Coloma, 2002
La Guitarra stubfoot toadAtelopus guitarraensis Osorno-Muñoz, Ardila-Robayo & Ruiz-Carranza, 2001
Morona-Santiago stubfoot toadAtelopus halihelos Peters, 1973
Quito stubfoot toadAtelopus ignescens (Cornalia, 1849)
Atelopus laetissimus Ruiz-Carranza, Ardila-Robayo & Hernández-Camacho, 1994
Limosa harlequin frogAtelopus limosus Ibáñez, Jaramillo & Solís, 1995
El Tambo stubfoot toadAtelopus longibrachius Rivero, 1963
Longnose stubfoot toadAtelopus longirostris Cope, 1868
Atelopus lozanoi Osorno-Muñoz, Ardila-Robayo & Ruiz-Carranza, 2001
Lynch's stubfoot toadAtelopus lynchi Cannatella, 1981
Atelopus mandingues Osorno-Muñoz, Ardila-Robayo & Ruiz-Carranza, 2001
Mindo stubfoot toadAtelopus mindoensis Peters, 1973
Colombian stubfoot toadAtelopus minutulus Ruiz-Carranza, Hernández-Camacho & Ardila-Robayo, 1988
Mittermeier's stubfoot toadAtelopus mittermeieri Acosta-Galvis, Rueda-Almonacid, Velásquez-Álvarez, Sánchez-Pacheco & Peña Prieto, 2006
Hernandez's stubfoot toadAtelopus monohernandezii Ardila-Robayo, Osorno-Muñoz & Ruiz-Carranza, 2002
Mucubaji stubfoot toadAtelopus mucubajiensis Rivero, 1974
La Arboleda stubfoot toadAtelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1992
Atelopus nahumae Ruiz-Carranza, Ardila-Robayo & Hernández-Camacho, 1994
Atelopus nanay Coloma, 2002
Gualecenita stubfoot toadAtelopus nepiozomus Peters, 1973
Niceforo's stubfoot toadAtelopus nicefori Rivero, 1963
Atelopus onorei Coloma, Lötters, Duellman & Miranda-Leiva, 2007
Rednose stubfoot toadAtelopus oxyrhynchus Boulenger, 1903
Schmidt's stubfoot toadAtelopus pachydermus (Schmidt, 1857)
Andersson's stubfoot toadAtelopus palmatus Andersson, 1945
Pataz stubfoot toadAtelopus patazensis Venegas, Catenazzi, Siu-Ting & Carrillo, 2008
San Isidro stubfoot toadAtelopus pedimarmoratus Rivero, 1963
Peru stubfoot toadAtelopus peruensis Gray & Cannatella, 1985
Peters' stubfoot toadAtelopus petersi Coloma, Lötters, Duellman & Miranda-Leiva, 2007
Atelopus petriruizi Ardila-Robayo, 1999
Painted stubfoot toadAtelopus pictiventris Kattan, 1986
Pinango stubfoot toadAtelopus pinangoi Rivero, 1982
Napo stubfoot toadAtelopus planispina Jiménez de la Espada, 1875
Atelopus pulcher Boulenger, 1882
Atelopus pyrodactylus Venegas & Barrio, 2006
Atelopus quimbaya Ruiz-Carranza & Osorno-Muñoz, 1994
Atelopus reticulatus Lötters, Haas, Schick & Böhme, 2002
Anori stubfoot toadAtelopus sanjosei Rivero & Serna, 1989
Upper Amazon stubfoot toadAtelopus seminiferus Cope, 1874
Pass stubfoot toadAtelopus senex Taylor, 1952
Atelopus sernai Ruiz-Carranza & Osorno-Muñoz, 1994
Atelopus simulatus Ruiz-Carranza & Osorno-Muñoz, 1994
Atelopus siranus Lötters &Henzl, 2000
Sonsón stubfoot toadAtelopus sonsonensis Vélez-Rodriguez & Ruiz-Carranza, 1997
Cloud forest stubfoot toadAtelopus sorianoi La Marca, 1983
Pebas stubfoot toadAtelopus spumarius Cope, 1871
Condoto stubfoot toadAtelopus spurrelli Boulenger, 1914
Bogota stubfoot toadAtelopus subornatus Werner, 1899
Venezuela stubfoot toadAtelopus tamaensis La Marca, García-Pérez & Renjifo, 1990
Three-colored stubfoot toadAtelopus tricolor Boulenger, 1902
Veragoa stubfoot toadAtelopus varius (Lichtenstein & Martens, 1856)
Atelopus vogli Müller, 1934
Walker's stubfoot toadAtelopus walkeri Rivero, 1963
Panamanian golden frogAtelopus zeteki Dunn, 1933

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lötters, Kielgast, Bielby, Schmidtlein, Bosch, Veith, Walker, Fisher, Rödder (2009). The Link Between Rapid Enigmatic Amphibian Decline and the Globally Emerging Chytrid Fungus. EcoHealth 6(3): 358-372
  2. ^ Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani and Young, editors (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Pp. 100, 160-178. ISBN 978-84-96553-41-5
  3. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19028712/ns/technology_and_science-science/
  4. ^ Zabarenko, Deborah (2007-06-04). "Purple frog among 24 new species found in Suriname". Reuters. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  5. ^ Amphibians of Suriname, Paul E. Ouboter and Rawien Jairam, Brill 2012, ISBN 978-90-04-21075-2
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