Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Vomerine teeth present. Posterior part of the tongue free and forked. Toes webbed. Omosternum and sternum ossified. Pupil of the eye horizontal. Snout moderately sharp. Male vocal sacs reduced. Shins (knee to ankle) shorter than body by 1.75-2.4 times; when the shins are positioned perpendicularly to the body axis, the heels contact or slightly overlap. When the hind leg is stretched along the body, the tibio-tarsal articulation does not usually reach the eye. Inner metatarsal tubercle small, 2.3-5.6 times shorter than first toe. Dorsal coloration greyish or grey-brown with small dark spots. Temporal spot large. Light middorsal band with distinct edges extends from eye to cloaca. Flank and thigh skin granular; granulae often red. Belly white or white-yellowish with large, irregular, partially fused blood-red spots. The red spots may alternate with dark spots, and the red pattern on the belly starts to form in about the second year of life. Males differ from females by having dark nuptial pads on the first finger.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Borkin, L.J., Belimov, G.T. and Sedalishchev, V.T. (1981). ''On distribution of frogs of the genus Rana in Yakutia.'' Herpetological Investigations in Siberia and the Far East. Zoological Institute of the USSR, Leningrad.
  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Vorobyeva, E. I. and Darevsky, I. S. (eds.) (1988). Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolian People's Republic: General Problems. Amphibians.. Moscow.
  • Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
  • Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
  • Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
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Distribution

Distribution and Habitat

Rana amurensis lives in West and East Siberia, the Russian Far East, Korea, Northern and Central Mongolia, and Northeastern China. This is one of the most widespread amphibians of the Palearctic. The northern margin of the range runs in Russia: northeastwards from Sverdlovsk Province (the westernmost localities are environs of Turinsk Town: 58º02'N, 63º41'E and Lenino Village in Tavda District) to Tyumen Province (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous County, lower Irtysh River - northwards along the rivers Irtysh and Ob to Batovo Village and Pasnokort Settlement in Oktyabrsk District - Yamal-Nenets Autonomous County, Nadymskii Nature Wildlife Sanctuary: ca. 65º33'N, 72º29'E). Then the margin turns southeastwards to the southern part of the Krasnoyarsk Region (Boguchan District) and Irkutsk Province (area of the Ust-Ilim Town: 58º00'N, 102º36'E). Then the margin runs northeastwards in Yakutia, approximately along the line: upper flow of the Vilyui River - upper flow of the Markha River - Zhigansk Town on the Lena River (ca. 67ºN, 124ºE) - upwards by the Lena River to Siktyakh and Buuru settlements - Khaiyr Lake in the lower Omoloi River area (ca. 71ºN, 133ºE). Then the margin runs southeastwards approximately along the line: Verkhoyansk District, Tylgys Settlement (30 km north of the Arctic Circle) - Verkhnekolymsk District, Usun-Kyuyol Settlement (ca. 67º40'N, 155ºE) - Magadan Province (Srednekansk District, Balygychan and Seimchan Settlements, ca. 63ºN, 152ºE). Then the margin runs southwards to the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk. There is some information on the occurrence of this frog even further north than the known localities. This information needs further verification.

The southern margin of the range runs in Russia approximately along the line: Sverdlovsk Province (Turinsk Town) - northeast of Kurgan Province - south of Tyumen Province - Omsk Province - Novosibirsk Province - Gornyi Altai Republic (right bank of the lower Katun River, foothills of Altai Mountains: ca. 52ºN, 86ºE) - Kemerovo Province - Khakassia Republic - south of the Krasnoyarsk Region - southwest of Irkutsk Province - Republic of Buryatia, then to Mongolia (forest steppe and steppe zones: Kharkhorin Town - Tuul River - Kherleen River), China (Inner Mongolia Autonomous District, as well as Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and Shaanxi provinces) and Korea. Both the northern and southern margins of the distribution need further exploration. The rarity and sporadic distribution of the species in those areas provide obstacles for such exploration.

Rana amurensis lives in coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forests, within which it penetrates the tundra and forest steppe zones. It occurs most frequently in open, wet places such as wet meadows, swamps, overgrown shores of lakes, riverbanks, and open areas in forests with abundant vegetation and arboreal debris. The connection with water bodies (overgrown river valleys with floodplain ponds and lakes) is especially typical in the southernmost (forest steppe and steppe) and the northernmost areas. In the south of the Primorye Region, this species avoids dense forests and occurs mainly in wet meadows with secondary small-leafed forest or shrub in river valleys. Reproduction occurs in shallow lakes, ponds, large puddles and swamps with stagnant water.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Borkin, L.J., Belimov, G.T. and Sedalishchev, V.T. (1981). ''On distribution of frogs of the genus Rana in Yakutia.'' Herpetological Investigations in Siberia and the Far East. Zoological Institute of the USSR, Leningrad.
  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Vorobyeva, E. I. and Darevsky, I. S. (eds.) (1988). Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolian People's Republic: General Problems. Amphibians.. Moscow.
  • Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
  • Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
  • Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
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Ecology

Associations

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
adult of Acanthocephalus ranae endoparasitises small intestine of Rana

Animal / rests in
Aplectana acuminata rests inside intestine (posterior part) of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
Balantidium endoparasitises rectum of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
cyst of Diplodiscus subclavatus endoparasitises skin of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
fluke of Dolichosaccus rastellus endoparasitises intestine of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
Gorgodera endoparasitises bladder of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
fluke of Gorgoderina vitelliloba endoparasitises bladder of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
fluke of Haematoloechus endoparasitises lung of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
fluke of Haplometra cylindracea endoparasitises lung of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
Hexamita intestinalis endoparasitises large intestine of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
larva of Lucilia bufonivora endoparasitises Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
larva of Lucilia silvarum endoparasitises Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
tapeworm of Nematotaenia dispar endoparasitises intestine of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
Nyctotherus cordiformis endoparasitises rectum of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
trophozoite of Opalina endoparasitises rectum of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
fluke of Opisthioglyphe ranae endoparasitises intestine of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
Oswaldocruzia filiformis endoparasitises intestine (anterior end) of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
fluke of Pleurogenes claviger endoparasitises intestine of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
fluke of Polystoma endoparasitises bladder of Rana

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
adult of Rhabdias bufonis endoparasitises lung of Rana

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:1138
Specimens with Sequences:851
Specimens with Barcodes:625
Species:73
Species With Barcodes:65
Public Records:195
Public Species:24
Public BINs:34
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rana cf. arvalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Rana cf. papua

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 13 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TATTTAATTTTTGGCACATGAGCCGGAATAATCGGAACAGCTTTG---AGTTTACTAATCCGAGCAGAGTTAAGCCAACCCGGTACTTTATTAGGGGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATGTTATTGTAACCGCACATGCATTTGTAATAATCTTTTTTATAGTTATACCAATTTTAATTGGGGGTTTCGGAAACTGATTAGTGCCTTTGATA---ATTGGAGCTCCAGACATAGCCTTCCCTCGCATAAATAATATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTCCCCCCCTCCTTCTTTCTTTTACTGGCTTCCTCGGCAGTTGAAGCTGGAGCAGGAACAGGCTGAACAGTTTATCCTCCATTGGCAGGTAACTTAGCCCACGCAGGACCATCAGTTGATCTA---GCCATCTTCTCTCTTCACTTAGCCGGAGTCTCTTCTATTTTAGGCGCAATTAATTTTATTACAACTATTTTTAATATAAAACCTTCATCTACTACACAATATCATATTCCTCTCTTTGTCTGATCCGTCTTAATTACTGCAGTATTATTATTATTGTCTCTTCCAGTCTTAGCTGCT---GGTATTACTATACTCCTTACTGACCGAAACCTTAATACAACCTTTTTTGACCCAGCAGGAGGAGGCGAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rana cf. papua

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rana cf. dalmatina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rana cf. lessonae

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Conservation

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

The Siberian Wood Frog is a common or abundant amphibian. Its population density through large areas reaches several hundred or thousands individuals per hectare. At the same time, in the northernmost and the southernmost areas the species forms dense but small populations in suitable habitats, and the overall abundance should be considered low. Hibernation occurs from early September - early November (usually October) to March - early June (usually April- May), depending on latitude. The frog hibernates in holes at the bottom of lakes and rivers, and in wells, usually in groups up to a few thousand individuals. Terrestrial hibernation seems to be more typical for southern regions. Reproduction takes place from March - April (usually May elsewhere), whereas in cold northern areas the breeding season may extend until the first half of July. Breeding choruses are absent; the species belongs to the group of "mute" brown frogs. Amplexus is pectoral (axial). The clutch contains 250-4000 eggs deposited in 1-2 clumps. Metamorphosis occurs from June - August. The maximum age was determined as 5-11 years old in different regions.

The larvae of R. amurensis consume mainly algae growing on underwater substrates (Phaeophyta, Zygnemales and Bacillariophyta), as well as higher plants, detritus and small aquatic invertebrates. Juveniles consume mainly terrestrial insects, but sometimes also aquatic arthropods. Adults consume mainly terrestrial invertebrates and the diet varies by season and habitat. The frog sometimes eats aquatic prey. The latter (Mollusca, Gerridae, Dytiscidae, Haliplidae and larval Odonata) are especially important in the northern part of the frog's range. Small amounts of aquatic organisms have been found in the stomachs of frogs caught at breeding ponds.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Borkin, L.J., Belimov, G.T. and Sedalishchev, V.T. (1981). ''On distribution of frogs of the genus Rana in Yakutia.'' Herpetological Investigations in Siberia and the Far East. Zoological Institute of the USSR, Leningrad.
  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Vorobyeva, E. I. and Darevsky, I. S. (eds.) (1988). Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolian People's Republic: General Problems. Amphibians.. Moscow.
  • Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
  • Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
  • Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
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Threats

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

There are no recorded overall changes in the population number of this species throughout the range. However, local declines related to human activity are known: there are reports on the negative influences of construction of dams on large rivers in Siberia, as well as drainage of breeding pools and mass collecting for education.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Borkin, L.J., Belimov, G.T. and Sedalishchev, V.T. (1981). ''On distribution of frogs of the genus Rana in Yakutia.'' Herpetological Investigations in Siberia and the Far East. Zoological Institute of the USSR, Leningrad.
  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Vorobyeva, E. I. and Darevsky, I. S. (eds.) (1988). Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolian People's Republic: General Problems. Amphibians.. Moscow.
  • Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
  • Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
  • Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

Rana amurensis often occurs in anthropogenically altered landscapes, especially open areas: hayfields, pastures, overgrown quarries, kitchen gardens etc. Its populations even occur in some settlements and cities.

  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Borkin, L.J., Belimov, G.T. and Sedalishchev, V.T. (1981). ''On distribution of frogs of the genus Rana in Yakutia.'' Herpetological Investigations in Siberia and the Far East. Zoological Institute of the USSR, Leningrad.
  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Vorobyeva, E. I. and Darevsky, I. S. (eds.) (1988). Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolian People's Republic: General Problems. Amphibians.. Moscow.
  • Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
  • Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
  • Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
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Wikipedia

Leopard frog

A leopard frog (sometimes called a meadow frog) can mean any frog of about 14 species within the true frog genus. They are generally similarly colored—green with prominent black spotting that sometimes appears as a leopard pattern. They are distinguished by their distribution and certain rather subtle ecological, behavioral, morphological and genetic traits. Their range in the North-American subcontinent extends throughout temperate and subtropical North America to northern Mexico, with some species found even further south. They are also found in Europe.

Taxonomy[edit]

Leopard frogs (meadow frogs) were often grouped with the American bullfrog and relatives in the genus Lithobates. Lithobates, however, is no longer recognized as a genus by most authors.[1][2][3]

Species[edit]

Further species may exist in this famous cryptic species complex

New species[edit]

In March 2012, it was announced that DNA testing had confirmed that a new species of leopard frog had been found whose habitat was centered near New York's Yankee Stadium[4] and included northern New Jersey, southeastern mainland New York, and Staten Island; the new still unnamed species is part of a cryptic species complex that was first distinguished by its short, repetitive croak, distinct from the "long snore" or "rapid chuckle" of other area leopard frog species. <This species has now been identified as far south as southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina.[5][6] On 30 October 2014, it was announced that the frog which was found in March 2012, is a new species of leopard frog called Rana kauffeldi that once inhabited Manhattan, New York.[7]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Hillis & Wilcox (2005)
  2. ^ Hillis (2007)
  3. ^ Pauly et al. (2009)
  4. ^ "New Frog Discovered in NYC: Freshwater Species of the Week – News Watch". Newswatch.nationalgeographic.com. 2012-03-16. Retrieved 2012-07-09. 
  5. ^ "Hiding in Plain Sight, a New Frog Species With a 'Weird' Croak Is Identified in New York City". ScienceDaily. March 14, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  6. ^ Newman CE, Feinberg JA, Rissler LJ, Burger J, Shaffer HR. 2012. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 63 (2): 445-455. ("Rana sp. nov.")
  7. ^ "Frogs' chorus leads to discovery of new species in US". BBC News. 29 October 2014. 

References[edit]

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Rana (genus)

"Brown frog" and "Pond frog" redirect here. For other uses, see Brown frog (disambiguation) and Pond frog (disambiguation).

Rana (commonly known as the pond frog or brown frog) is a genus of frogs. Members of this genus are found through much of Eurasia, North America, Africa, Central America, and the northern half of South America. Many other genera were formerly included here;[1] see below for details.

These true frogs are usually largish species characterized by their slim waists and wrinkled skin; many have thin ridges running along their backs but they generally lack "warts" like in typical toads. They are excellent jumpers due to their long slender legs. The typical webbing found on their hind feet allows for easy movement through water. Coloration is mostly greens and browns above, with darker and yellowish spots.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Many frogs in this genus breed in early spring, although subtropical and tropical species may breed throughout the year. Males of most of the species are known to call, but a few species are thought to be voiceless. Females lay eggs in rafts or large, globular clusters, and can produce up to 20,000 at one time.

Diet[edit]

Rana species feed mainly on insects and invertebrates, but will swallow anything they can fit into their mouths, including small vertebrates. Among their predators are egrets, crocodiles and snakes.

Systematics[edit]

Some 50 species are now placed in this genus; many other species formerly placed in Rana are now placed elsewhere, for the North American frogs see Lithobates. Rana is now restricted to the Old World true frogs and the Eurasian brown and pond frogs of the common frog R. temporaria group.[2][3] The validity and delimitation of the subgenera are somewhat disputed.[4]

Genera recently split from Rana are Babina, Clinotarsus (including Nasirana), Glandirana, Hydrophylax, Hylarana, Lithobates, Odorrana (including Wurana), Pelophylax, Pulchrana, Sanguirana, and Sylvirana. Of these, Odorrana is so closely related to Rana proper, it could conceivably be included here once again. The others seem to be far more distant relatives, in particular Pelophylax.[1]

New species are still being described in some numbers.

Species[edit]

The harpist brown frog (also known as Kampira Falls frog or Yaeyama harpist frog) was formerly known as R. psaltes; it was subsequently identified as the long-known R. okinavana. The latter name has been misapplied to the Ryūkyū brown frog, but the harpist brown frog is a rather distinct species that apparently belongs in Babina or Nidirana if these are considered valid.[6]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cai et al. (2007), Stuart (2008)
  2. ^ Lithobates, American Museum of Natural History.
  3. ^ Hillis & Wilcox (2005), Hillis (2007), Pauly et al. (2009)
  4. ^ Hillis & Wilcox (2005), Hillis (2007), Stuart (2008), Pauly et al. (2009)
  5. ^ Feinberg JA, Newman CE, Watkins-Colwell GJ, Schlesinger MD, Zarate B, Curry BR, Bradley Shaffer HB, Burger J. (2014). Cryptic Diversity in Metropolis: Confirmation of a New Leopard Frog Species (Anura: Ranidae) from New York City and Surrounding Atlantic Coast Regions. PLoS ONE 9(10): e108213. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108213
  6. ^ Matsui (2007)

References[edit]

  • Cai, Hong-xia; Che, Jing, Pang, Jun-feng; Zhao, Er-mi & Zhang, Ya-ping (2007): Paraphyly of Chinese Amolops (Anura, Ranidae) and phylogenetic position of the rare Chinese frog, Amolops tormotus. Zootaxa 1531: 49–55. PDF abstract and first page text
  • Dubois, A. & Ohler, A. (1995) Frogs of the subgenus Pelophylax (Amphibia, Anura, genus Rana): a catalogue of available and valid scientific names, with comments on the name-bearing types, complete synonymies, proposed common names, and maps showing all type localities. In: Ogielska, M. (ed.): II International Symposium on Ecology and Genetics of European water frogs, 18–25 September 1994, Wroclaw, Poland. Zoologica Poloniae 39(3-4): 139-204
  • Frost, Darrel R. (2006): Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 4, 2006-AUG-17.
  • Hillis, D. M. (2007) Constraints in naming parts of the Tree of Life. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 42: 331–338. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.08.001 PDF fulltext
  • Hillis, D. M. & Wilcox, T. P. (2005): Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 34(2): 299–314. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.10.007 PDF fulltext
  • Matsui, Masafumi (2007): Unmasking Rana okinavana Boettger, 1895 from the Ryukyus, Japan (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae). Zool. Sci. 24: 199–204. doi:10.2108/zsj.24.199 (HTML abstract)
  • Pauly, Greg B., Hillis, David M. & Cannatella, David C. (2009): Taxonomic freedom and the role of official lists of species names. Herpetologica 65: 115-128. PDF fulltext
  • Stuart, Bryan L. (2008): The phylogenetic problem of Huia (Amphibia: Ranidae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 46(1): 49-60. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.09.016 (HTML abstract)
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