Overview

Comprehensive Description

Summary

"Cethosia biblis, commonly called Red Lacewing, is a Heliconiine butterfly species belonging to the Nymphalidae family."
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Physical Description

Morphology

"Cethosia biblis is medium-sized butterfly whose males and females differ. In males, the uppersides are rich orange- red, the markings somewhat similar to those of C. cyane (Leopard lacewing). In the forewings the cells are crossed by several transverse black lines, two small white spots beyond the cell under costa; a transverse series of four or five V-shaped white loops followed by a post-discal series of white spots and the terminal border with white V-sbaped markings as in C. cyane. Hindwing : the markings as in C. cyane. Under-side: markings very similar to those of C. cyane, the ground-colour altogether of a deeper yellowish brown, the base of the wings dull red not crimson. The cell of forewing crossed by three pale greenish-blue bands margined by black lines, a like band near base of hindwing. Females darker and of a dull greenish colour, markings as in the males."
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Size

65-90 mm
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Diagnostic Description

SubSpecies Varieties Races

"A. Cethosia biblis biblis - Assam, C. India – SW. China B. Cethosia biblis insularis C. & R. Felder, 1861 - Philippines (Luzon, Polillo, ?Babuyanes) C. Cethosia biblis nicobarica Felder, 1862 - Nicobar? D. Cethosia biblis picta C. & R. Felder, [1867] - Sulawesi E. Cethosia biblis javana C. & R. Felder, [1867] - Java F. Cethosia biblis logani Distant, 1881 – E. Sumatra G. Cethosia biblis tambora (Doherty, 1891) - Sumbawa H. Cethosia biblis narmada Fruhstorfer, 1896 - Lombok I. Cethosia biblis narmadoides de Nicéville, 1898 - Bali J. Cethosia biblis perakana Fruhstorfer, 1902 – S. Thailand, Peninsular Malaya, Pulau Tioman K. Cethosia biblis ceramensis Fruhstorfer, 1902 - Serang L. Cethosia biblis atia Fruhstorfer, 1905 - Kalao M. Cethosia biblis alceste Fruhstorfer, 1905 - Bawean N. Cethosia biblis hainana Fruhstorfer, 1908 - Hainan O. Cethosia biblis tisamena Fruhstorfer, 1912 - India P. Cethosia biblis phanaroia Fruhstorfer - Hong Kong Q. Cethosia biblis adantonia Fruhstorfer – W. Sumatra R. Cethosia biblis sumbana Pagenstecher - Sumba S. Cethosia biblis floresiana Fruhstorfer - Flores T. Cethosia biblis sandakana Fruhstorfer - Borneo, ?Palawan U. Cethosia biblis liacura Fruhstorfer - Philippines (Mindanao) V. Cethosia biblis tagalorum Fruhstorfer - Philippines (Mindoro) W. Cethosia biblis togiana Fruhstorfer - Togian Is. X. Cethosia biblis buruana Holland - Buru Y. Cethosia biblis amboinensis C. & R. Felder, [1867] - Ambon Z. Cethosia biblis andamanica Stichel - Andaman? AA. Cethosia biblis pemanggilensis Eliot, 1978 – Pemanggil"
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Forests and human habitats.
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Trophic Strategy

"Cethosia biblis caterpillars feed mainly on poisonous climbing plants, mainly Passiflora species (Passiflora cochinchinensis, Passiflora moluccana, etc.)"
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Common
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Wikipedia

Cethosia biblis

The Red Lacewing (Cethosia biblis) is a species of heliconiine butterfly belonging to the Nymphalidae family.

Description[edit]

Cethosia biblis is medium-sized butterfly, with a wingspan reaching about 8–9 centimetres (3.1–3.5 in). In this species the sexes are dimorphic. In males the dorsal sides of the wings are bright orange-red, framed by a black outline with white spots. The undersides range from bright red to pale brown, interlaced by black and white. This astonishing pattern helps to disguise the shape of the butterfly, while the intense colour of the dorsal sides of the wings is a warning to predators that the Red Lacewing has a bad taste, deriving from the poisonous host plants of the caterpillars. The dorsal sides of the wings of the females are grayish-brownish with black spots and white bands and spots on the black margins.

Caterpillars have several reddish, black and white stripes, a black head and long black spikes that contain poison. In fact they mainly feed on poisonous climbing plants, mainly Passiflora species (Passiflora cochinchinensis, Passiflora moluccana, etc.).

Distribution[edit]

This species can be found from the Indian Subcontinent eastwards to Southeast Asia and East Asia, the eastern limit being the Philippines, and the southern limit being to Indonesia. [1]

Gallery[edit]

Subspecies[edit]

  • Cethosia biblis biblis - Assam, C. India – SW. China
  • Cethosia biblis insularis C. & R. Felder, 1861 - Philippines (Luzon, Polillo, ?Babuyanes)
  • Cethosia biblis nicobarica Felder, 1862 - Nicobar?
  • Cethosia biblis picta C. & R. Felder, [1867] - Sulawesi
  • Cethosia biblis javana C. & R. Felder, [1867] - Java
  • Cethosia biblis logani Distant, 1881 – E. Sumatra
  • Cethosia biblis tambora (Doherty, 1891) - Sumbawa
  • Cethosia biblis narmada Fruhstorfer, 1896 - Lombok
  • Cethosia biblis narmadoides de Nicéville, 1898 - Bali
  • Cethosia biblis perakana Fruhstorfer, 1902 – S. Thailand, Peninsular Malaya, Pulau Tioman
  • Cethosia biblis ceramensis Fruhstorfer, 1902 - Serang
  • Cethosia biblis atia Fruhstorfer, 1905 - Kalao
  • Cethosia biblis alceste Fruhstorfer, 1905 - Bawean
  • Cethosia biblis hainana Fruhstorfer, 1908 - Hainan
  • Cethosia biblis tisamena Fruhstorfer, 1912 - India
  • Cethosia biblis phanaroia Fruhstorfer - Hong Kong
  • Cethosia biblis adantonia Fruhstorfer – W. Sumatra
  • Cethosia biblis sumbana Pagenstecher - Sumba
  • Cethosia biblis floresiana Fruhstorfer - Flores
  • Cethosia biblis sandakana Fruhstorfer - Borneo, ?Palawan
  • Cethosia biblis liacura Fruhstorfer - Philippines (Mindanao)
  • Cethosia biblis tagalorum Fruhstorfer - Philippines (Mindoro)
  • Cethosia biblis togiana Fruhstorfer - Togian Is.
  • Cethosia biblis buruana Holland - Buru
  • Cethosia biblis amboinensis C. & R. Felder, [1867] - Ambon
  • Cethosia biblis andamanica Stichel - Andaman?
  • Cethosia biblis pemanggilensis Eliot, 1978 – Pemanggil [1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cethosia, funet.fi
  • Treadaway, C.G. & H.G. Schroeder, 2009: A study of the subspecies of Cethosia biblis (Drury, 1773) from the Philippines (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Nachr. entomol. Ver. Apollo N.F. 29 (4): 193-198.
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