Overview

Brief Summary

Equus is a genus of animals in the family Equidae that includes horsesdonkeys, andzebras. Within EquidaeEquus is the only extant genus. Like Equidae more broadly, Equushas numerous extinct species known only from fossils.

Equines are medium to large mammals, with long heads and necks with a mane. Their legs are slender and end in a single, unguligrade toe, protected by a horny hoof. They have long, slender tails, either ending in a tuft, or entirely covered in flowing hair. They are adapted to generally open terrain, from plains and savannas, to mountains or deserts.

The pinnae (outer ears) of equines are mobile, enabling them to easily localise the origin of sounds. They have two-color, or dichromatic vision. Their eyes are set back far on the head, giving them a wide angle of view, without entirely losing binocular vision. Equines also have a vomeronasal organ, that allows males to use the flehmen, or 'lip-curling' response to assess the sexual state of potential mates. Equines are one of only two mammals (the other is the human) capable of producing copious sweat perspiration for thermoregulatory cooling, enabling fast running over long distances.

Equines are herbivores, and feed predominantly on tough, fibrous food, such as grasses and sedges. When in need, they will also eat other vegetable matter, such as leaves, fruits, or bark, but are normally grazers, not browsers. Unlike ruminants, with their complex stomachs, equines break down cellulose in the "hindgut" or caecum, a part of the colon. Their dentition is almost complete, with cutting incisors to crop food, and grinding molars set well back behind a diastema.

Equines are social animals, living in herds or bands. Horses, along with Plains and Mountain Zebras, have permanent herds generally consisting of a single male and a band of females, with the remaining males forming small "bachelor" herds. The remaining species have temporary herds, lasting only a few months, which may be either single-sexed or mixed. In either case, there are clear hierarchies established amongst the individuals, usually with a dominant female controlling access to food and water resources and the lead male controlling mating opportunities.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:327Public Records:305
Specimens with Sequences:322Public Species:6
Specimens with Barcodes:305Public BINs:9
Species:6         
Species With Barcodes:6         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Equus

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Wikipedia

Zebroid

A zebroid (also zedonk, zorse, zebra mule, zonkey, and zebrule) is the offspring of any cross between a zebra and any other equine: essentially, a zebra hybrid. In most cases, the sire is a zebra stallion. Offspring of a donkey sire and zebra dam, called a zebra hinny, or donkra, do exist but are rare. Zebroids have been bred since the 19th century. Charles Darwin noted several zebra hybrids in his works.

Types[edit]

Zebroid is the generic name for all zebra hybrids. The different hybrids are generally named using a portmanteau of the sire's name and the dam's name. There is generally no distinction made as to which zebra species is used. Many times when zebras are crossbred, they develop some form of dwarfism. Breeding of different branches of the equine family, which does not occur in the wild, generally results in infertile offspring. The combination of sire and dam also affects the offspring phenotype.

A zorse is the offspring of a zebra stallion and a horse mare. This cross is also called a zebrula, zebrule, or zebra mule. The rarer reverse pairing is sometimes called a horbra, hebra, zebrinny or zebret. Like most other animal hybrids, the zorse is sterile.[1]

A zony is the offspring of a zebra stallion and a pony mare. Medium-sized pony mares are preferred to produce riding zonies, but zebras have been crossed with smaller pony breeds such as the Shetland, resulting in so-called "Zetlands".[2]

A zebra/donkey hybrid

A cross between a zebra and a donkey is known by many terms including: zonkey, zebonkey, zebronkey, zebrinny, zebrula, zebrass, zedonk, and zebadonk. Donkeys are closely related to zebras and both animals belong to the horse family. These zebra donkey hybrids are very rare.[3] In South Africa, they occur where zebras and donkeys are found in proximity to each other. Like mules, however, they are generally genetically unable to breed, due to an odd number of chromosomes disrupting meiosis.

Genetics[edit]

Donkeys and wild equids have different numbers of chromosomes. A donkey has 62 chromosomes; the zebra has between 32 and 46 (depending on species). In spite of this difference, viable hybrids are possible, provided the gene combination in the hybrid allows for embryonic development to birth. A hybrid has a number of chromosomes somewhere in between. The chromosome difference makes female hybrids poorly fertile and male hybrids generally sterile due to a phenomenon called Haldane's Rule. The difference in chromosome number is most likely due to horses having two longer chromosomes that contain similar gene content to four zebra chromosomes.[4] Horses have 64 chromosomes, while most zebroids end up with 54 chromosomes.

Common wisdom states that hybrids only occur when the zebra is the sire, but the Barbados hybrid demonstrates otherwise. Two other known zebra hinnies have been foaled, but did not survive to adulthood. The rarity of zebra hinnies indicates the smaller number of chromosomes must generally be on the male side if a viable hybrid is to be produced. Before this comes into account, a successful mating needs to be accomplished in the first place.

Zonkeys are interspecific hybrids bred by mating two species from within the same genus. The offspring have traits and characteristics of both parents. Zonkeys vary considerably depending on how the genes from each parent are expressed and how they interact.

Physical characteristics[edit]

A zorse

Zebroids physically resemble their nonzebra parent, but are striped like a zebra. The stripes generally do not cover the whole body, and might be confined to the legs or spread onto parts of the body or neck. If the nonzebra parent was patterned (such as a roan, Appaloosa, Pinto horse/paint, piebald, or skewbald), this pattern might be passed down to the zebroid, in which case the stripes are usually confined to nonwhite areas. The alternative name golden zebra relates to the interaction of zebra striping and a horse's bay or chestnut colour to give a zebra-like black-on-bay or black-on-chestnut pattern that superficially resembles the quagga. In zebra-donkey hybrids, there is usually a dorsal (back) stripe and a ventral (belly) stripe.

Zebroid Eclyse

Zorses combine the zebra striping overlaid on colored areas of the hybrid's coat. Zorses are most often bred using solid color horses. If the horse parent is piebald (black and white) or skewbald (other color and white), the zorse may inherit the dominant depigmentation genes for white patches. It is understood that tobiano (the most common white modifier found in the horse) directly interacts with the zorse coat to give the white markings. Only the nondepigmented areas will have zebra striping, resulting in a zorse with white patches and striped patches. This effect is seen in the zebroid named Eclyse (a hebra rather than a zorse) born in Stukenbrock, Germany in 2007 to a zebra mare called Eclipse and a stallion called Ulysses.

Zebroids are preferred over zebra for practical uses, such as riding, because the zebra has a different body shape from a horse or donkey, and consequently it is difficult to find tack to fit a zebra. However, a zebroid is usually more inclined to be temperamental than a purebred horse and can be difficult to handle. Zebras, being wild animals, and not domesticated like horses and donkeys, pass on their wild animal traits to their offspring.[citation needed] Zebras, while not usually very large, are extremely strong and aggressive. Similarly, zorses have a strong temperament and can be aggressive.

Historical and notable zebroids[edit]

Zebra-horse hybrid foal with quagga-like markings, Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum, Tring, England.

In 1815, Lord Morton mated a quagga stallion to a chestnut Arabian mare. The result was a female hybrid which resembled both parents. This provoked the interest of Cossar Ewart, Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh (1882–1927) and a keen geneticist. Ewart crossed a zebra stallion with pony mares to investigate the theory of telegony, or paternal impression. In Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin mentioned four coloured drawings of hybrids between the ass and zebra. He also wrote "In Lord Morton's famous hybrid from a chestnut mare and male quagga, the hybrid, and even the pure offspring subsequently produced from the mare by a black Arabian sire, were much more plainly barred across the legs than is even the pure quagga." In his book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, Darwin described a hybrid ass-zebra specimen in the British Museum as being dappled on its flanks. He also mentioned a "triple hybrid, from a bay mare, by a hybrid from a male ass and female zebra" displayed at London Zoo. This would have required the zebroid sire to be fertile.

During the South African War, the Boers crossed the Chapman's zebra with the pony, to produce an animal for transport work, chiefly for hauling guns. A specimen was captured by British forces and presented to King Edward VII by Lord Kitchener, and was photographed by W S Berridge.[5] Zebras are resistant to sleeping sickness, whereas purebred horses and ponies are not, and it was hoped that the zebra mules would inherit this resistance.

Grevy's zebra has been crossed with the Somali ass in the early 20th century. Zorses were bred by the US Government and reported in Genetics in Relation to Agriculture by E. B. Babcock and R. E. Clausen (early 20th century), in an attempt to investigate inheritance and telegony. The experiments were also reported in The Science of Life by H G Wells, J Huxley and G P Wells (c. 1929).

The 1970s continued the interest in zebra crosses. In 1973 a cross between a zebra and a donkey was foaled at the Jerusalem Zoo. They called it a "hamzab." In the 1970s, the Colchester Zoo in England bred zedonks, at first by accident and later to create a disease-resistant riding and draft animal. The experiment was discontinued when zoos became more conservation-minded. A number of hybrids were kept at the zoo after this; the last died in 2009.[6] One adult and a foal remain at the tourist attraction of Groombridge Place[7] near Tonbridge in Kent.

21st century[edit]

Today, various zebroids are bred as riding and draft animals, and as curiosities in circuses and smaller zoos. Zorses are bred in Africa and used for trekking on Mount Kenya;[8] the zebra parent gives resistance to the nagana pest disease. A zorse (more accurately a zony) was born at Eden Ostrich World, Cumbria, England in 2001 after a zebra was left in a field with a Shetland pony. It was referred to as a Zetland. Usually, a zebra stallion is paired with a horse mare or donkey mare, but in 2005, a Burchell's zebra named Allison produced a zonkey called Alex sired by a donkey at Highland plantation in the parish of Saint Thomas, Barbados. Alex, born 21 April 2005, is apparently the first zonkey in Barbados.[9] In 2007, a stallion, Ulysses, and a zebra mare, Eclipse, produced a zebroid named Eclyse, displaying an unusually patchy color coating.[10][11] The Wild Animal Safari in Springfield, Missouri, and its sister location in Pine Mountain, Georgia, have several zedonks as of 31 March 2010.[citation needed] In July 2010, a zedonk was born at the Chestatee Wildlife Preserve in Dahlonega, Georgia.[12] Another zebra–donkey hybrid, like the Barbados zonkey sired by a donkey, was born 3 July 2011 in Haicang Safari Park, Haicang, Xiamen, China.[13] A zonkey, Ippo was born 21 July 2013 in an animal reserve, Florence, Italy.[14] Khumba, the offspring of a zebra dam and a dwarf albino donkey sire, was born on 21 April 2014 in the zoo of Reynosa in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico.[15]

Popular culture[edit]

Zorses have appeared in several TV shows and movies. In the Viva La Bam episode "Groundhogs Day" in the final race, Brandon Dicamillo's sled is a zorse. It was colored pink, blue, purple and red and on the 'uncommentary' on the DVD seasons of Viva La Bam, Tim Glomb says "If you send me a list of all the episodes where the zorse is I'll give you a dollar". Also, the 2007 movie I'm Reed Fish features a zorse named Zabrina. In the movie Racing Stripes, an animated zorse appears in the alternate ending. He is the son of Stripes (a zebra) and Sandy, a grey Arabian mare. Zorses have also appeared in books. They are briefly mentioned several times in George R.R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels. Sutton Coleman wrote a sonnet about zorses and published it in his 2007 book, Ligers, Tigons, and Zorses, Oh My! In Roald Dahl's book Going Solo, he and several other characters speculate on how nice it would be to own a zorse, although they admit it would be difficult to train. The video game Red Dead Redemption has the "Zebra Donkey" available as a multiplayer mount.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Zorse Breed Description". Breeding References. EquinePost. Retrieved 27 May 2009. 
  2. ^ Carter, Helen (27 June 2001). "Crisis-hit farm welcomes its gift forse". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 20 April 2010. "it could be a zorse perhaps, a fony or maybe a shebra or a zetland. Whatever its name, the arrival of the strange beast has been hailed as a godsend" 
  3. ^ Megersa, B.; Biffa, D.; Kumsa, B. (2006). "A mysterious zebra-donkey hybrid (zedonk or zonkey) produced under natural mating: A case report from Borana, southern Ethiopia". Animal Production Research Advances 2 (3): 148–154. 
  4. ^ K. Benirschke, et. alia (1964). "Chromosome Studies of a Donkey-Grevy Zebra Hybrid". Chromosoma 15 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1007/BF00326911. PMID 14171168. 
  5. ^ Wonders of Animal Life, edited by J A Hammerton (1930)
  6. ^ "Colchester Zoo mourns the loss of Shadow the Zeedonk" (Press release). Colchester Zoo. 3 April 2009. 
  7. ^ "The Enchanted Forest". Groombridge Place Gardens. 
  8. ^ "Meet Eclyse - the amazing zebra crossing". Mail Online (London: Associated Newspapers Ltd). 28 June 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2008. 
  9. ^ "Call it zonkey or a deebra? Zebra has a foal sired by a donkey". MSNBC. Associated Press. 29 Apr 2005. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 
  10. ^ Amanda Billner. "Zebran är en häst" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter's webpage, 28 June 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2007.
  11. ^ BBC "Half horse, half zebra - hebra Retrieved 3 July 2007]
  12. ^ "Zebra, donkey hybrid born in Dahlonega". Gainesville Times. 27 July 2010. 
  13. ^ "Donkra: Cross between Donkey, Zebra born". 3 News. 5 July 2011. 
  14. ^ "It’s a zonkey! Zebra and donkey hybrid born in Italy". Daily News (New York). 
  15. ^ "Zonkey born in a zoo in Mexico". The Telegraph. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
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Equus (genus)

For other uses, see Equus.

Equus is a genus of animals in the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, and zebras. Within Equidae, Equus is the only extant genus. Like Equidae more broadly, Equus has numerous extinct species known only from fossils. This article deals primarily with the extant species. The term equine refers to any member of this genus, including horses.

The word comes from Latin equus, "horse",[1] cognate with Greek "ἵππος" (hippos), "horse",[2] and Mycenaean Greek i-qo /ikkʷos/ (cf. the alternative development of the Proto-Greek labiovelar in Ionic "ἴκκος" ikkos[3][4]), the earliest attested variant of the Greek word, written in Linear B syllabic script.[5]

Characteristics[edit]

Equines are medium to large mammals, with long heads and necks with a mane. Their legs are slender and end in a single, unguligrade toe, protected by a horny hoof. They have long, slender tails, either ending in a tuft, or entirely covered in flowing hair. They are adapted to generally open terrain, from plains and savannas, to mountains or deserts.

The range of equine monocular vision. Shaded areas represent blind spots.

The pinnae (outer ears) of equines are mobile, enabling them to easily localise the origin of sounds. They have two-color, or dichromatic vision. Their eyes are set back far on the head, giving them a wide angle of view, without entirely losing binocular vision. Equines also have a vomeronasal organ, which allows males to use the flehmen, or 'lip-curling' response, to assess the sexual state of potential mates. Equines are one of only two mammals (the other is the human) capable of producing copious sweat perspiration for thermoregulatory cooling, enabling fast running over long distances.

Equines are herbivores, and feed predominantly on tough, fibrous food, such as grasses and sedges. When in need, they will also eat other vegetable matter, such as leaves, fruits, or bark, but are normally grazers, not browsers. Unlike ruminants, with their complex stomachs, equines break down cellulose in the "hindgut" or caecum, a part of the colon. Their dentition is almost complete, with cutting incisors to crop food, and grinding molars set well back behind a diastema. The dental formula for equines is:

Dentition
3.1.3-4.3
3.1.3.3
A feral horse herd in the western United States
Mounted fossil of Equus occidentalis from the La Brea Tar Pits

Equines are social animals, living in herds or bands. Horses, along with Plains and Mountain Zebras, have permanent herds generally consisting of a single male and a band of females, with the remaining males forming small "bachelor" herds. The remaining species have temporary herds, lasting only a few months, which may be either single-sexed or mixed. In either case, there are clear hierarchies established among the individuals, usually with a dominant female controlling access to food and water resources and the lead male controlling mating opportunities.

Females, usually called mares in horses and zebras, or, in the case of asses and donkeys, jennies, usually bear a single foal, after a gestation period of approximately 11 months. Young equines are able to walk within an hour of birth, and are weaned after four to thirteen months (animals living in the wild naturally wean foals at a later date than those under domestication). Depending on species, living conditions and other factors, females in the wild may give birth every year or every other year.[6][7]

Equines that are not in foal generally have a seasonal estrous cycle, from early spring into autumn. Most females enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period. The reproductive cycle is controlled by the photoperiod (length of the day), with estrus triggered when the days begin to lengthen. Anestrus prevents the female from conceiving in the winter months, as that would result in her foaling during the harshest part of the year, a time when it would be more difficult for the foal to survive.[8] However, equines who live near the equator, where there is less change in length of day from season to season, have no anestrus period, at least in theory.[9] Further, for reasons that are not clear, about twenty percent of domestic mares in the Northern Hemisphere will cycle the year round.[9]

Classification[edit]

Family Equidae in addition to Equus, the family includes approximately 35 other genera, all extinct.

Extant species[edit]

All species and subspecies[edit]

[extinct species are marked with †]

Cross-breeds[edit]

Different species of Equus can crossbreed, though the ensuing offspring are usually infertile. Hybrids include:

a mule
  • Mule, a cross between a male donkey and a female horse. Mules are the most common type of hybrid equine and are renowned for their toughness, sure-footedness, and working ability.
  • Hinny, a cross between a female donkey and a male horse. Considered a less desirable cross than a mule, generally smaller in size and not as hardy.

Any equine with partial zebra ancestry is called a zebroid.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ equus, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus Digital Library
  2. ^ ἵππος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  3. ^ ἴκκος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  4. ^ Introduction to Ionic Dialect Brett Mulligan, "Introduction to Ionic Dialect", Haverford College Classics Department, accessed March 10, 2012
  5. ^ Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages
  6. ^ Macdonald, D., ed. (1984). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 482–485. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. 
  7. ^ "Environmental Assessment: Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range FY2004: Fertility Control on Age-Specific Wild Horse Mares". BLM National Research Field Trials on Wild Horse Fertility Control, Summer 2004 accessed November 21, 2007.
  8. ^ Ensminger, M. E. Horses and Horsemanship: Animal Agriculture Series. Sixth Edition. Interstate Publishers, 1990. ISBN 0-8134-2883-1 p. 156
  9. ^ a b Eilts, Bruce E. "Aberrations of the Equine Estrous cycle", Louisiana State University school of Veterinary Medicine, last modified 15 August 2007. Accessed November 21, 2007
  10. ^ a b Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder, ed. (2005). "Equus caballus". Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. 
  11. ^ a b c d International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (2003). "Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010)." (Summary). Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 60 (1): 81–84. 
  12. ^ a b Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder, ed. (2005). "Equus asinus". Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. 
  13. ^ Orlando, L.; et al. (2008). "Ancient DNA Clarifies the Evolutionary History of American Late Pleistocene Equids". Journal of Molecular Evolution 66 (5): 533–538. doi:10.1007/s00239-008-9100-x. PMID 18398561. 
  14. ^ Weinstock, J.; et al. (2005). "Evolution, systematics, and phylogeography of Pleistocene horses in the New World: a molecular perspective". PLoS Biology 3 (8): e241. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030241. PMC 1159165. PMID 15974804. Retrieved 2008-12-19. 
  15. ^ Hagerman Fossil Beds NM Hourse Quarry Page

Sources[edit]

  • Burke, et al. 2003. "The systematic position of Equus hydruntinus, an extinct species of Pleistocene equid". Quaternary Research 59(3):459–469.
  • Duncan, P. (ed.). 1992. "Zebras, Asses, and Horses: an Action Plan for the Conservation of Wild Equids". IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
  • Equid Specialist Group 1996. "Equus ferus". In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 January 2006.
  • Equid Specialist Group 1996. "Equus ferus ssp. przewalskii". In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 January 2006.
  • Groves, C.P.; Bell, H.B. (2004). "New investigations on the taxonomy of the zebras genus Equus, subgenus Hippotigris". Mammalian Biology 69: 182–196. doi:10.1078/1616-5047-00133. 
  • Higuchi, RG, Wrischnik, LA, Oakes, E, George, M, Tong, B, Wilson, AC (1987). "Mitochondrial DNA of the Extinct Quagga: Relatedness and Extent of Postmortem Change". Journal of Molecular Evolution 25 (4): 283–287. doi:10.1007/BF02603111. PMID 2822938. 
  • "International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 60:81–84.
  • Moehlman, P.D. 2002. "Equids. Zebras, Assess and Horses. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan." IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. (http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/publications/actionplans.htm#Equids2002)
  • Orlando, L; Mashkour, M; Burke, A; Douady, CJ; Eisenmann, V; Hänni, C (2006). "Geographic distribution of an extinct equid (Equus hydruntinus : Mammalia, Equidae) revealed by morphological and genetical analyses of fossils". Molecular Ecology 15 (8): 2083–2093. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.02922.x. PMID 16780426. 

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Atlas wild ass

The Atlas wild ass (Equus africanus atlanticus), also known as Algerian wild ass, is a purported extinct subspecies of the African wild ass that was once found across North Africa and parts of the Sahara.[1] It was last represented in a villa mural ca.300 AD in Bona, Algeria, and went extinct as a result of Roman sport hunting.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Purported bones have been found in a number of rock shelters across Morocco and Algeria by paleontologists including Alfred Romer (1928, 1935) and Camille Arambourg (1931).[3]

While the existence of several rock art depictions and Roman mosaics leave no doubt about the former existence of African wild asses in North Africa, it has been claimed that the original bones that were used to describe the subspecies atlanticus actually belonged to a fossil zebra. Therefore, the name E. a. atlanticus might not be valid to refer to the Atlas wild ass.[4]

Description[edit]

Based on ancient drawings, the Atlas wild ass had stripes on its legs as well as a shoulder cross.[5] Of the living subspecies of African wild ass, the Somali wild ass has only leg stripes, and the Nubian wild ass only the shoulder stripe.[6] One or both features appear sometimes in the domestic donkey, the domestic descendant of the African wild asses.

Range and ecology[edit]

The Atlas wild ass was found in the region around the Atlas Mountains, across modern day Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.[7] It might also have occurred in rocky areas of the Saharan Desert, but not in sands which are avoided by wild asses.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kingdon, Jonathan (1997) The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. Helm, London
  2. ^ A C V van Bemmel
  3. ^ Denham, Tim; Irarte, José; Vrydaghs, Luc (2007). Rethinking Agriculture: Archaeological and Ethnoarchaeological Perspectives. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. p. 383. ISBN 9781598742602. 
  4. ^ Kingdon, Jonathan (1997) The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. Helm, London
  5. ^ Hemmer, Helmut (1990). Domestication: the decline of environmental appreciation. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 55. ISBN 9780521341783. 
  6. ^ Kingdon, Jonathan (1997) The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. Helm, London
  7. ^ Des Roses Moehlman, Patricia (2002). Equids: Zebras, Asses, and Horses: Status Survey and Conservation Action plan. Cambridge: IUCN. p. 2. ISBN 9782831706474. 
  8. ^ Kingdon, Jonathan (1997) The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. Helm, London
  • Harper, F. (1945). Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Old World, QL707.H37, p. 352
  • Ziswiler, V. (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Animals, QL88.Z513, p. 113
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