The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Duellman, W. E., and L. Trueb. 1986. Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.
  • Flores-Villela, Oscar / McCoy, C. J., ed. 1993. Herpetofauna Mexicana: Lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de México, cambios taxonómicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication, no. 17. iv + 73
  • Ford, L. S., and D. C. Cannatella. 1993. The major clades of frogs. Herp. Monogr. 7:94-117.
  • Frost, D. R. (Ed.) 1985. Amphibian Species of the World. Allen Press and the Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
  • Frost, Darrel R. 2015. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (Date of access). Electronic Database accessible at American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.
  • Graybeal, A., and D. C. Cannatella. 1995. A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the phylogenetic status of supraspecific bufonid taxa. Herpetologica 51(2):105-131.
  • Griffiths, I. 1954. On the "otic element" in Amphibia Salientia. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 124:35-50.
  • Roessler, M. K. P., H. M. Smith, and D. Chiszar. 1990. Bidder's organ: a bufonid by-product of the evolutionary loss of hyperfecundity. Amphibia-Reptilia 11:225-235.
  • Starrett, P. H. 1968. The phylogenetic significance of the jaw musculature in anuran amphibians. PhD. Dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
  • Trewavas, E. 1933. The hyoid and larynx of the Anura. Trans. Royal Phil. Soc. London 222:401-527.
  • Vitt, L. J., & Caldwell, J. P. (2014). Herpetology: an introductory biology of amphibians and reptiles. Academic Press.


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