The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arango, C. P. 2002. Morphological phylogenetics of the sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida). Organisms Diversity & Evolution 2:107-125.
  • Arango, C. P. 2003. Molecular approach to the phylogenetics of sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) using partial sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28:588-600.
  • Arnaud, F. and R. N. Bamber. 1987. The biology of Pycnogonida. Advances in Marine Biology 24:1-96.
  • Bain, B. A. 2003. Larval types and a summary of postembryonic development within the pycnogonids. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 43:193-222.
  • Bamber, R. (2008). Pycnogonida. In: Bamber, R.N., El Nagar, A. & Arango, C. (Eds) (2016). Pycnobase: World Pycnogonida Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Bamber, R. N. 2007. A holistic re-interpretation of the phylogeny of the Pycnogonida Latreille, 1810 (Arthropoda). Pages 295-312 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A., eds. Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668:1–766.
  • Bamber, R. N. and M. H. Thurston. 1995. The deep-water pycnogonids (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) of the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 115:117-162.
  • Bergström, J., W. Stürmer, and G. Winter. 1980. Palaeoisopus, Palaeopantopus and Palaeothea, pycnogonid arthropods from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate, West Germany. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 54:7-54.
  • Child, C. A. 1998. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Pycnogonica (Sea Spiders). National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Biodiversity Memoirs 109:1-71.
  • Fahrenbach, W. H. 1994. Microscopic anatomy of Pycnogonida. 1. Cuticle, epidermis, and muscle. Journal of Morphology 222:33-48.
  • Fry, W. G. 1978. A classification within the pycnogonids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 63:35-38.
  • Fujikura K, Lindsay D, Kitazato H, Nishida S, Shirayama. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11836. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011836
  • Hedgpeth, J. W. 1978. Reappraisal of Palaeopantopoda with description of a species from Jurassic. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 63:23-34.
  • King, P. E. 1973. Pycnogonids. Hutchinson & Co., London.
  • Miloslavich P, Díaz JM, Klein E, Alvarado JJ, Díaz C, et al. 2010. Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11916. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011916
  • Siveter, D. J., M. D. Sutton, D. E. G. Briggs, and D. J. Siveter. 2004. A Silurian sea spider. Nature 431:978-980.
  • Staples, D. A. 1997. 21. Sea spiders or pycnogonids (Phylum Arthropoda). Pages 1040-1072 in Marine Invertebrates of Southern Australia, Part III. S. A. Shepherd and M. Davies, eds. South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide.
  • Stock, J. H. 1994. Indo-west pacific Pycnogonida collected by some major oceanographic expeditions. Beaufortia 1:17-77.
  • Vilpoux, K. and D. Waloszek. 2003. Larval development and morphogenesis of the sea spider Pycnogonum litorale (Ström, 1762) and the tagmosis of the body of Pantopoda. Arthropod Structure and Development 32:349-383.
  • Waloszek, D. and J. Dunlop. 2002. A larval sea spider (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from the Upper Cambrian 'Orsten' of Sweden, and the phylogenetic position of pycnogonids. Palaeontology 45:421-446.


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