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Sandhill frogs are smallish fossorial anurans, known by two species, the Northern Sandhill Frog (Arenophryne rotunda) and the Southern Sandhill Frog (Arenophryne xiphorhyncha). Considerably more information is extant regarding the Northern Sandhill Frog. Both species are confined to very restricted spatial regimes in the near coastal area of Western Australia within the Southwest Australian savanna ecoregion.
the Southern Sandhill frog, Arenophryne xiphorhyncha, was earlier thought to be identical to A. rotunda; however, more detailed analysis reveals this closely related species residing in the Kalbarri dunes, is a distinct taxon. These two taxa apparently genetically diverged approximately five to seven million years before present.
The genus is known for its burrowing in soft sand soils in order to achieve hydradtion from the moist subsoil and to create burrows for refuge and breeding.