Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
Papio can be divided into five species, as outlined by Groves (2001). Papio hamadryas (hamadryas baboons), P. anubis (anubis baboons), P. cynocephalus (yellow baboons), P. ursinus (chacma baboons), and P. papio (Guinea baboons). Some authorities continue to recognize only a single species, Papio hamadryas, which is composed of five subspecies corresponding to the species mentioned above. Species are parapatric, with hybridization often occurring in areas where populations abut. In overall physical appearance, all members of the genus are similar, with variation in coat color (olive, brown, black, yellow, red, gray), and hair length. A mane or ruff of fur may be prominent in males, and varies by species. Size varies by species and geographically, with males weighing from 20 to 31 kg, and females weighing from 10 to 15 kg. Baboons may live in large or small multi-male, multi-female troops, or single male harems. In all species, social behavior is complex and varied. Baboons can be found in a variety of habitat types, including grasslands, woodlands, semi-arid and arid savannas, steppes, alpine woodlands, sub-deserts, gallery forests, and rainforests. This genus is primarily frugivorous, although grasses, leaves, seeds and other plant material are consumed. Animal matter is eaten when available.