Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple, palmately lobed or dissected. Flowers actinomorphic, solitary or in pairs, axillary. Sepals and petals 5. Stamens 10 (in ours), usually all fertile. Ovary 5-locular. Beak of mericarp rolling upwards at maturity, remaining attached at its apex.
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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Geranium polyanthes Edgew. & Hook. f.:
Bhutan (Asia)
India (Asia)
Nepal (Asia)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Geranium L.:
Argentina (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Canada (North America)
Chile (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Uruguay (South America)
United States (North America)
Venezuela (South America)
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Sichuan (Kangding), SE Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, N India, Nepal].
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Himalaya (Kumaun to Bhutan), N. Assam, S. Tibet.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennials. Rootstock ± vertical, 4-10 mm in diam., not tuberculate, without thickened roots. Stem 7-64 cm tall, erect, not rooting at nodes, subglabrous or with a variable indumentum composed of 0.1-0.3 mm uncinate nonglandular trichomes, 0.8-2.2 mm patent nonglandular trichomes, and 0.2-1.3 mm patent glandular trichomes in different combinations. Stipules ovate, distinct. Leaves 1(or 2) alternate but opposite at inflorescence; petiole subglabrous or with a variable indumentum composed of 0.1-0.3 mm uncinate nonglandular trichomes, 0.4-1.9 mm patent nonglandular trichomes, and 0.5-1.2 mm patent glandular trichomes in different combinations; leaf blade 2.1-5.6 cm, palmately cleft, ratio of main sinus/middle segment length = 0.68-0.81, pilose with ± appressed nonglandular and glandular trichomes; segments 5-7, obtriangular, 3.8-8.9 mm wide at base, 3-9-lobed in distal half, ratio of second sinus/middle segment length = 0.12-0.23. Cymules in dense umbel-like aggregates at apex of each branch, 2(or 3)-flowered; peduncle absent (to 7.3 cm). Pedicel 0.2-2.5 cm, with 1-2.3 mm patent nonglandular trichomes, 0.2-0.3 mm uncinate nonglandular trichomes, and usually 0.4-0.7 mm patent glandular trichomes; bracteoles lanceolate. Sepals 4.9-8.2 mm, mucro 0.4-1 mm, ratio of mucro/sepal length = 0.06-0.13, outside with 0.2-2.6 mm ± patent nonglandular trichomes and 0.4-1.1 mm patent glandular trichomes, inside glabrous. Petals pinkish, (0.8-)1-1.4 cm, erect to patent, outside glabrous, inside basally with trichomes, margin basally ciliate, apex rounded or retuse. Staminal filaments white, lanceolate, adaxially pilose and proximal half ciliate, trichomes 0.3-0.7 mm; anthers yellow, 0.6-1.1 mm. Nectaries 5, hemispheric, glabrous. Stigma pinkish. Fruit 1.3-2.1 cm, erect when immature; mericarps reticulate, without a basal callus, with ± appressed 0.1-0.2 mm nonglandular trichomes; rostrum 0.9-1.4 cm, without a narrowed apex or with a 0.5-1 mm narrowed apex; stigmatic remains 0.7-1.7 mm. Seeds 1.9-2.6 mm. Fl. Jul-Aug, fr. Aug-Oct.
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Elevation Range

2400-4500 m
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Description

Rhizome horizontal, stem ascending, slender. Leaves suborbicular with 7 segments. Segments not exceeding 24 mm in length, lobes blunt, obtuse, petiole of lower cauline leaves long and slender, lamina pilose; stipule 8 mm long. Peduncle 11.5 cm long, 2-flowered; glandular hairy; bract lanceolate, largest 7 mm long. Flowers 2, sessile. Petal base ciliate.
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Ecology

Habitat

Forests, scrub, meadows; 2900-4000 m.
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Associations

Foodplant / gall
Aceria geranii causes gall of leaves (terminal) of Geranium
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Agromyza nigrescens mines live leaf of Geranium
Other: sole host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / open feeder
Hypera dauci grazes on leaf of Geranium
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Limobius borealis grazes on leaf of Geranium

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora conglomerata parasitises live Geranium

Foodplant / parasite
Pestalozziella coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalozziella subsessilis parasitises live Geranium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Protoemphytus carpini feeds on leaf of Geranium

Foodplant / sap sucker
Rhopalus parumpunctatus sucks sap of seed of Geranium

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous telium of Uromyces geranii parasitises live leaf of Geranium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Zacladus exiguus feeds on Geranium

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:190Public Records:92
Specimens with Sequences:162Public Species:35
Specimens with Barcodes:158Public BINs:0
Species:42         
Species With Barcodes:42         
          
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Geranium

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Wikipedia

Geranium

Geranium is a genus of 422 species of flowering annual, biennial, and perennial plants that are commonly known as the cranesbills. They are found throughout the temperate regions of the world and the mountains of the tropics, but mostly in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region. The long, palmately cleft leaves are broadly circular in form. The flowers have five petals and are coloured white, pink, purple or blue, often with distinctive veining. Geraniums will grow in any soil as long as it is not waterlogged. Propagation is by semiripe cuttings in summer, by seed, or by division in autumn or spring.

The genus name is derived from the Greek γέρανος (géranos) or γερανός (geranós) ‘crane’. The English name ‘cranesbill’ derives from the appearance of the fruit capsule of some of the species. Species in the Geranium genus have a distinctive mechanism for seed dispersal. This consists of a beak-like column which springs open when ripe and casts the seeds some distance. The fruit capsule consists of five cells, each containing one seed, joined to a column produced from the centre of the old flower. The common name ‘cranesbill’ comes from the shape of the unsprung column, which in some species is long and looks like the bill of a crane. However, many species in this genus do not have a long beak-like column.

Geraniums are eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including brown-tail and mouse moth.

The species Geranium viscosissimum (sticky geranium) is considered to be protocarnivorous.

Confusion with pelargoniums[edit]

Showing the "bill" and seed dispersal mechanism of Geranium pratense

Confusingly, "geranium" is also the common name of members of the genus Pelargonium (sometimes known as 'storksbill'), which are also in the Geraniaceae family. These are generally half-hardy plants which are either grown from seed every year, or offered as bedding in spring and discarded after flowering. Linnaeus originally included all the species in one genus, Geranium, but they were later separated into two genera by Charles L’Héritier in 1789. Other former members of the genus are now classified in genus Erodium, including the plants known as filarees in North America.

The term "hardy geranium" is often applied to geraniums to distinguish them from the pelargoniums. However, not all geranium species are winter-hardy (see below).

Structure[edit]

The shape of the flowers offers one way of distinguishing between the two genera Geranium and Pelargonium. Geranium flowers have five very similar petals, and are thus radially symmetrical (actinomorphic), whereas pelargonium flowers have two upper petals which are different from the three lower petals, so the flowers have a single plane of symmetry (zygomorphic).

Cultivation[edit]

A number of geranium species are cultivated for horticultural use and for pharmaceutical products. Some of the more commonly grown species include:

All the above species are perennials and generally winter-hardy plants, grown for their attractive flowers and foliage. They are long-lived and most have a mounding habit, with palmately lobed foliage. Some species have spreading rhizomes. They are normally grown in part shade to full sun, in well-draining but moisture retentive soils, rich in humus.[1] Other perennial species grown for their flowers and foliage include: G. argenteum, G. eriostemon, G. farreri, G. nodosum, G. procurrens, G. pylzowianum, G. renardii, G. traversii, G. tuberosum, G. versicolor, G. wallichianum and G. wlassovianum. Some of these are not winter-hardy in cold areas and are grown in specialized gardens like rock gardens.[2] Geranium 'Johnson's Blue' is a hybrid between G. himalayense (southwestern China), with G. pratense (European meadow cranesbill).[3]

The following hybrid cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit (other cultivars are dealt with under their species name - see above).

  • 'Ann Folkard'[4]
  • 'Dilys'[5]
  • 'Johnson's Blue'[6]
  • 'Mavis Simpson'[7]
  • 'Orion'[8]
  • 'Rozanne'[9]
  • 'A. T. Johnson' (G. × oxonianum)[10]
  • 'Wargrave pink' (G. × oxonianum)[11]

Medical usage[edit]

Scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Germany have found that South African geranium plant extracts represent a potential new class of anti-HIV-1 agents for the treatment of AIDS.[12]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Phillips, Ellen; Colston Burrell, C. (1993), Rodale's illustrated encyclopedia of perennials, Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press, pp. 373–76, ISBN 0-87596-570-9 
  2. ^ Jelitto, Leo; Schacht, Wilhelm; Epp, Translated by Michael E.; John Philip Baumgardt, Technical Editor (1990), Hardy herbaceous perennials 1, Portland, Or.: Timber Press, pp. 260–64, ISBN 0-88192-159-9 
  3. ^ "Paghat's Garden". Paghat.com. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  4. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Geranium 'Ann Folkard' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  5. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Geranium 'Dilys' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Geranium 'Johnson's Blue' / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  7. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Geranium 'Mavis Simpson' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Geranium 'Orion' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Geranium ROZANNE 'Gerwat' PBR AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  10. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Geranium × oxonianum 'A.T. Johnson' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  11. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Results / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  12. ^ "South African geranium root may kill HIV-1". The Financial Express. Retrieved 2014-01-31. 
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Notes

Comments

This species is well characterized by its 2(or 3)-flowered cymules in dense umbel-like aggregates at the apex of each branch and its short or absent peduncles. Geranium carolinianum is an annual with similar inflorescences but with smooth mericarps. Rootstock of G. polyanthes is usually vertical, sometimes knotty (probably when growing in difficult soils), but not tuberose. This species can produce cleistogamic flowers of less size, which are not considered in the description.
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Comments

The plant specimen resembles in facies Geranium collinum but has very short blunt and obtuse leaf segment lobes and flowers that are almost sessile. More plant material of this Geranium species is required for further study.
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