Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:309Public Records:130
Specimens with Sequences:267Public Species:49
Specimens with Barcodes:156Public BINs:8
Species:57         
Species With Barcodes:26         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Amazona

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Wikipedia

Amazon parrot

"Amazona" redirects here. For the Roxy Music song, see Amazona (song).
Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva), illustration by Keulemans, 1891

Amazon parrot is the common name for a parrot of the genus Amazona. These are medium-size parrots native to the New World ranging from South America to Mexico and the Caribbean.

Most Amazon parrots are predominantly green, with accenting colors that depend on the species and can be quite vivid. They feed primarily on seeds, nuts, and fruits, supplemented by leafy matter.

Many Amazon parrots have a remarkable ability to mimic human speech and other sounds. Partly because of this they are popular as pets or companion parrots, and a small industry has developed in breeding parrots in captivity for this market. This popularity has led to many parrots being taken from the wild to the extent that some species have become threatened. CITES treaties have made trapping wild parrots for the pet trade illegal to protect wild populations.

Classification[edit]

Further information: List of Amazon parrots

The taxonomy of the yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala complex) is disputed, with some authorities only listing a single species (A. ochrocephala), while others split it into as many as three species (A. ochrocephala, A. auropalliata and A. oratrix). The split is primarily based on differences related to extension of yellow to the plumage and the colour of bill and legs. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA do not support the traditional split.[2]

Re-classification of the yellow-faced parrot[edit]

The yellow-faced parrot (Alipiopsitta xanthops) was traditionally placed within this genus of Amazon parrots, but recent research has shown that it is closer to the short-tailed parrot and the species from the genus Pionus, resulting in it being transferred to the monotypic genus Alipiopsitta.[3][4]

Hypothetically extinct species[edit]

Populations of Amazon parrots that lived on the Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe are now extinct. It is not known if they were separate species, subspecies, or if they originated from parrots introduced to the islands by humans, and so they are regarded as hypothetical extinct species. There are no surviving remains of them, and their taxonomy may never be established. Populations of several parrot species were described mainly in the unscientific writings of early travelers, and subsequently scientifically described by several naturalists (to have their names linked to the species that they were proposing) mainly in the twentieth century, with no more evidence than the earlier observations and without specimens.[5]

Aviculture[edit]

Orange-winged Amazons in a cage with toys

The yellow-headed Amazon, yellow-naped Amazon, orange-winged Amazon, and blue-fronted Amazon are some of the Amazon parrot species which are commonly kept as pets. Amazon parrots, together with macaws, and the African grey parrot are all known for their exceptional vocal abilities, playfulness, and dexterity with their feet. Well trained parrots can be loyal companions, and they can live for 50 years or sometimes more in captivity. However, some amazons—even well trained ones—can become aggressive, possibly during mating season. In order to maintain health and happiness, pet parrots require much more training than domesticated animals such as dogs or even cats. They require understanding, manipulative toys, and rewards for good pet-like behavior, or they can develop quite aggressive behaviors. They have a strong, innate need to chew, and thus require safe, destructible toys.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ITIS standard report page: Amazona record last updated 1998 (URL accessed May 22, 2006)
  2. ^ Eberhard, J., & E. Bermingham. 2004. Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amazona ochrocephala (Aves: Psittacidae) Complex. Auk 121(2): 318-332
  3. ^ Duarte JMB and Caparroz R (1995) Cytotaxonomic analysis of Brazilian species of the genus Amazona (Psittacidae, Aves) and confirmation of the genus Salvatoria (Ribeiro, 1920). Braz J Genet 18:623-628.
  4. ^ Russello, M.A. & Amato, G (2004) A molecular phylogeny of Amazona: implications for Neotropical parrot biogeography, taxonomy, and conservation. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 30: 421-437.
  5. ^ a b c Fuller, Errol (1987). Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England). p. 131. ISBN 0-670-81787-2. 
  • Caparroz, R. and J.F. Pacheco, 2006: A homonymy in Psittacidae a new name for Salvatoria Miranda-Ribeiro. Ararajuba: Rev. Brasileira de Ornitologia. V. 14, n 2, pp. 91–93.
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List of Amazon parrots

The Amazon parrots are about 30 species of parrots that comprise the genus Amazona. They are native to the New World, ranging from South America to Mexico and the Caribbean. Amazon parrots range in size from medium to large, and have relatively short, rather square tails. They are predominantly green, with accenting colors that are quite vivid in some species.

The taxonomy of the Yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala complex) is disputed, with some authorities listing only a single species (A. ochrocephala), and others splitting it into as many as three species (A. ochrocephala, A. auropalliata and A. oratrix).[1][2][3] The Yellow-faced Parrot, Alipiopsitta xanthops, was traditionally placed within the Amazon parrot genus, but recent research has shown that it is more closely related to the Short-tailed Parrot and species from the genus Pionus; as a result, it has been transferred to the monotypic genus Alipiopsitta.[4][5]

Two extinct species have been postulated, based on limited evidence.[6][7] They are the †Martinique Amazon (Amazona martinica)[8][9] and the †Guadeloupe Amazon (Amazona violacea).[6][10][11] Amazon parrots were described living on Guadeloupe by Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre in 1667 and by Jean-Baptiste Labat in 1742, and they were called Psittacus violaceus at that time. Labat also described Amazon parrots living on Martinique. There are no specimens or remains of either island population, so their taxonomy may never be fully elucidated. Their status as separate species is unproven and they are regarded as hypothetical extinct species.[6]

Species of Amazon parrots in taxonomic sequence
Common and binomial names[7]ImageDescriptionRange
Cuban Amazon
or Rose-throated Amazon
(Amazona leucocephala)
Amazona leucocephala -in tree-4cp.jpg
28–33 cm (11–13 in) long, mostly green, white on face, pink throat, brownish on belly.[12]Cuba, The Bahamas, and Cayman Islands[13][14]
Yellow-billed Amazon
(Amazona collaria)
Amazona collaria -St. Andrew -Jamaica-8a-3c.jpg
28 cm (11 in) long, mostly green, white face markings and white forehead, blue forecrown, pink throat and upper breast, bluish primaries, yellow bill[15]Jamaica[16]
Hispaniolan Amazon
(Amazona ventralis)
Amazona ventralis -Dominican Republic-4a-4c.jpg
28–31 cm (11–12 in) long, mostly green, white forehead, blue flight feathers, maroon belly and red in the tail feathers.[17]Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands[18]
Puerto Rican Amazon
(Amazona vittata)
Puerto Rican parrot.jpg
28–30 cm (11–12 in) long, mostly green, red forehead, white eyerings.[19]Archipelago of Puerto Rico[20]
Yellow-lored Amazon
(Amazona xantholora)
Goldzuegelamazone.JPG
Mostly green, blue on crown and yellow on sides of face, horn coloured beakBelize, Honduras, and Mexico[21][22]
White-fronted Amazon
(Amazona albifrons)
White-fronted Amazon (Amazona albifrons) -tree-3c.jpg
25 cm (10 in) long, mostly green, white forehead with blue on the crown, red on sides of face. Sexual dimorphism: males have bright red feathers on their shoulders, while females have green shouldersBelize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico; Nicaragua[23][24]
Black-billed Amazon
(Amazona agilis)
Amazona agilis in zoo.jpeg
25 cm (10 in) long, mostly green with small patches of red on the wing and sometimes flecked with red on the head, black beak[25]Jamaica[26]
Tucuman Parrot
(Amazona tucumana)
Amazona tucumana -Loro Parque -Spain-8a-4cr.jpg
31 cm (12 in) long, mostly green with feathers of the upper-body being green with black margins. Red plumage on forehead and fore-crown, and the red does not extend around the white eye-rings. Red primary wing feathers with no red at the bend of the wing. They have orange thighs and red at base of a green tail.[27]Argentina and Bolivia[28][29]
Red-spectacled Amazon
(Amazona pretrei)
Amazona pretrei -Brazil-8.jpg
32 cm (12.5 in) long, mostly green with a variable extent of red on forehead, lores, and around eyes. The eyerings are white and the bill is yellowish. Red on the bend of the wings with blue tips to secondary and primary wing feathers.[30]Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay[31]
Red-crowned Amazon
(Amazona viridigenalis)
Red Crowned Amazon.jpg
33 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, bright red forehead and crown, dark blue streaks behind the eyes, and light green cheeks, less red on the crown of the female and the juvenile[32]Native to Mexico, introduced to Puerto Rico and United States[33]
Lilac-crowned Amazon
(Amazona finschi)
Lilac-crowned Amazon.jpg
30.5–34.5 cm (12–14 in) long, mostly green, a maroon forehead, and violet-blue crown[34]NW to SW Mexico[34][35][36]
Red-lored Amazon
(Amazona autumnalis)
Amazona autumnalis -The Parrot Zoo, Friskney, Lincolnshire, England-8a-2c.jpg
32–35 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, red forehead and in some subspecies yellow cheeks (sometimes with red spots), blue crownCentral and South America[37][38]
Blue-cheeked Amazon
or Dufresne's Amazon
(Amazona dufresniana)
Amazona dufresniana -two captive-8a-2c.jpg
34 cm (13.5 in) long, mostly green, with blue cheeksFrench Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, and possibly in northern Brazil[39][40]
Red-browed Amazon
(Amazona rhodocorytha)
Amazona rhodocorytha -RSCF-6.jpg
35 cm (14 in) long, mostly green, red forehead fading to browning-purple on the crown, orange lores and yellow below lores, bluish to violet cheeks and throat.[41]East Brazil[42][43]
Red-tailed Amazon
(Amazona brasiliensis)
Amazona brasiliensis 001 1280.jpg
37 cm (14.4 in) long, mostly green, red forehead fading to purple on the crown. Blue throat, cheeks and over ears. Red in tail feathers[44]SE Brazil[42][45]
Festive Amazon
(Amazona festiva)
Amazona festiva bodini -Tulsa Zoo-8a.jpg
Mostly green, red forehead, deep blue outer wing feathers, red rumpBrazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela[46][47]
Yellow-shouldered Amazon
(Amazona barbadensis)
Amazona barbadensis -pet-4.jpg
33 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, white forehead and lores, yellow crown and ear-coverts, bare white eye rings. Yellow chin and shoulders. Some red and dark blue in the wing feathers.[48]Netherlands Antilles, Venezuela[49]
Blue-fronted Amazon
(Amazona aestiva)
Amazona aestiva -in tree-8.jpg
38 cm (15 in) long, mostly green, blue forehead and yellow on the faceBolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina.[50][51]
Yellow-crowned Amazon
(Amazona ochrocephala)
Amazona ochrocephala -zoo-8.jpg
33–38 cm (13–15 in) long, mostly green, extent of the yellow on the head varies between subspecies.South America and Panama[52][53]
Yellow-naped Amazon
(Amazona auropalliata)
Yellow naped amazon Morris MN 2007.JPG
Mostly green, yellow band across the lower nape and hindneckCosta Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua.[54][55]
Yellow-headed Amazon
(Amazona oratrix)
Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) -on wooden shelf.jpg
35–38 cm (14–15 in) long, mostly green, yellow head[56]Belize, Guatemala, Mexico.[57]
Kawall's Amazon
(Amazona kawalli)
image requested
Large and mostly green. White skin at base of billBrazil[58][59]
Orange-winged Amazon
(Amazona amazonica)
Amazona amazonica 2c.jpg
33 cm (13 in) long, mostly green, blue and yellow feathers on head which varies in extent between individuals. The upper mandible is partly horn coloured and partly dark-grey. It has orange feathers in the wings and tailSouth America[60][61]
Scaly-naped Amazon
(Amazona mercenaria)
Amazona mercenaria -Ecuador -Andes-8-4c.jpg
Mostly greenArgentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela[62][63]
Mealy Amazon
(Amazona farinosa)
Amazona farinosa -upper body -Elmwood Park Zoo-6.jpg
38–41 cm (15–16 in) long, mostly green. The extent of yellow and green on the forehead and crown varies between the subspecies.Mexico, and Central and South America[64][65]
Vinaceous Amazon
(Amazona vinacea)
Amazona vinacea -RSFP-8a-1c.jpg
30 cm (12 in) long, mostly green, red forehead, bluish nape, vinous-maroon breast[66]Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay[67]
St. Lucia Amazon
(Amazona versicolor)
Amazona versicolor -St Lucia-5a.jpg
43 cm (17 in) long, mostly green, blue face and forehead, red breast becoming maroon and mottled on lower breast and belly[68]Saint Lucia[69]
Red-necked Amazon
(Amazona arausiaca)
Amazona arausiaca -Roseau -Dominica -aviary-6a-4c.jpg
40 cm (16 in) long, mostly green, blue forehead and face, white bare eyerings, red patch on throat (sometimes absent)[70]Dominica[71]
St. Vincent Amazon
(Amazona guildingii)
Amazona guildingii -Botanical Gardens -Kingstown -Saint Vincent-8a-4c.jpg
40 cm (16 in) long, mostly green, multi-colored amazon parrot with a yellowish white, blue and green head, greenish-bronze upperparts, grey feet, orange irises, and violet blue-green wings and tail feathers. There is a yellow-brown morph and a less common green morph.[72]Caribbean island of Saint Vincent in the Lesser Antilles[73]
Imperial Amazon
(Amazona imperialis)
Amazona imperialis -Roseau -Dominica -aviary-6a-3c.jpg
45 cm (18 in) long, mostly green, purple neck, green-tipped red tail and purple below.[74]Dominica[74]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Binford, L. (1989). "A distributional survey of the birds of the Mexican state of Oaxaca." Ornithological Monographs. 43: 1–418.
  2. ^ Monroe, B, Monroe, JR & Howell T. (1966). "Geographic variation in Middle American parrots of the Amazona ochrocephala complex". Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, no. 34. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge.
  3. ^ For further on this issue, see the Yellow-crowned Amazon taxonomic section
  4. ^ Duarte JMB and Caparroz R (1995) "Cytotaxonomic analysis of Brazilian species of the genus Amazona (Psittacidae, Aves) and confirmation of the genus Salvatoria (Ribeiro, 1920)." Brazilian Journal of Genetics 18:623–628.
  5. ^ Russello, M A & Amato, G (2004) "A molecular phylogeny of Amazona: implications for Neotropical parrot biogeography, taxonomy, and conservation." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30: 421–437.
  6. ^ a b c Fuller, Errol (1987). Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England). p. 131. ISBN 0-670-81787-2. 
  7. ^ a b "Zoological Nomenclature Resource: Psittaciformes (Version 9.022)". www.zoonomen.net. 2009-04-02. 
  8. ^ BirdLife International 2008. Amazona martinicana. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  9. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona martinica". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  10. ^ BirdLife International 2008. Amazona violacea. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  11. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona violacea". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  12. ^ Collar, p. 467
  13. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona leucocephala. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  14. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona leucocephala". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 8 August 2008. 
  15. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona collaria". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  16. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona collaria. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  17. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona ventralis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  18. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona ventralis. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  19. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona vittata". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  20. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona vittata. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  21. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona xantholora. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  22. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona xantholora". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  23. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona albifrons. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  24. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona albifrons". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  25. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona agilis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  26. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona agilis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  27. ^ Forshaw (2006). plate 108.
  28. ^ BirdLife International 2005. Amazona tucumana. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  29. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona tucumana". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  30. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona pretrei". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  31. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona pretrei. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  32. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona viridigenalis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  33. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona viridigenalis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  34. ^ a b Collar, p. 469
  35. ^ BirdLife International (2006). Amazona finschi. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  36. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona finschi". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  37. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona autumnalis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  38. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona autumnalis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  39. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona dufresniana. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  40. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona dufresniana". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  41. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona rhodocorytha". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  42. ^ a b Collar, p. 470
  43. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona rhodocorytha. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  44. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona brasiliensis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  45. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona brasiliensis. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  46. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona festiva. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  47. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona festiva". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  48. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona barbadensis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  49. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona barbadensis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  50. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona aestiva. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12-08-2008.
  51. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona aestiva". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  52. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona ochrocephala. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  53. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona ochrocephala". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  54. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona auropalliata". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  55. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona auropalliata. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 15-08-2008.
  56. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona oratrix". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  57. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona oratrix. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 15-08-2008.
  58. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona kawalli. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  59. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona kawalli". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  60. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona amazonica. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  61. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona amazonica". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  62. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona mercenaria. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  63. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona mercenaria". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  64. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona farinosa. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  65. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona farinosa". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  66. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona collaria". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  67. ^ BirdLife International 2008. Amazona vinacea. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  68. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona versicolor". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  69. ^ BirdLife international 2008. Amazona versicolor. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  70. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona arausiaca". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  71. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona arausiaca. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  72. ^ "Species factsheet: Amazona guildingii". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  73. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Amazona guildingii. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 08-08-2008.
  74. ^ a b "Species factsheet: Amazona imperialis". BirdLife International (2008). Retrieved 12 August 2008. 

Bibliography[edit]

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