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Asian elephants are smaller than their African savannah relatives (Loxodonta africana) and have many other physical features that distinguish them. The ears are smaller and the back is more rounded so that the crown of the head is the highest point of the body (2). One of the characteristic features of an elephant are the modified incisor teeth which are known as tusks, however, only some male Asian elephants have tusks, whilst females (cows) have 'tushes' instead, that are seldom visible (3). Elephants support their stocky body on stout, pillar-like legs, and the nose and upper lip are joined and elongated into a trunk (3). The trunk provides a wide variety of functions from feeding, vocalisation, bathing and fighting; those of the Asian elephant have only a single finger-like process on the base, whilst the African elephant has two (4). The thick, wrinkly skin covering the body is a greyish-brown colour and very dry (5).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:13
Specimens with Sequences:13
Specimens with Barcodes:13
Species:2
Species With Barcodes:2
Public Records:4
Public Species:1
Public BINs:1
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Wikipedia

Elephas

Distinguish from Elaphus (disambiguation).

Elephas is one of two surviving genera in the family of elephants, Proboscidea, with one surviving species, the Asian elephant Elephas maximus.[1]

Several extinct species have been identified as belonging to the genus, including Elephas recki, Elephas antiquus, and the dwarf elephants E. falconeri and E. cypriotes. The genus is very closely related to the mammoth genus Mammuthus.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Elephas is assigned to the proboscidean family Elephantidae and comprises one living and 10 extinct species:[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Shoshani, J. (2005). "Order Proboscidea". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ Fleischer, R. C.; Perry, E. A.; Muralidharan, K.; Stevens, E. E.; Wemmer, C. M. (2001). Phylogeography of the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) based on mitochondrial DNA. Evolution 55(9): 1882–1892
  3. ^ a b Maglio, V.J. (1973). Origin and evolution of the Elephantidae. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society Philadelphia Volume 63. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. Pp. 149
  4. ^ Fernando, P., Vidya, T.N.C., Payne, J., Stuewe, M., Davison, G., et al. (2003). DNA Analysis Indicates That Asian Elephants Are Native to Borneo and Are Therefore a High Priority for Conservation. PLoS Biol 1 (1): e6
  5. ^ Von Königswald, G. H. R. (1956). Fossil mammals from the Philippines. National Research Council of the Philippines, Manila
  6. ^ Hooijer, D.A. (1949). Pleistocene Vertebrates from Celebes. IV. - Archidiskodon celebensis nov spec.. Zoologische Mededelingen Museum Leiden, 30 (14): 205–226.
  7. ^ Busk, G. (1867). Description of the remains of three extinct species of elephant, collected by Capt. Spratt, C.B.R.N., in the ossiferous cavern of Zebbug, in the island of Malta. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 6: 227–306.
  8. ^ Falconer, H. Cautley, P. T. (1846). Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, Being the Fossil Zoology of the Sewalik Hills. Smith, Elder & Company, London. Pp. 64.
  9. ^ Hooijer, D. A. (1955). Fossil Proboscidea from the Malay Archipelago and the Punjab. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 28 (1): 1–146.
  10. ^ Todd, N. E. (2001). African Elephas recki: Time, space and taxonomy. In: Cavarretta, G., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and M. R. Palombo. The World of Elephants, Proceedings of the 1st International Congress. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome, pp. 693–697.
  11. ^ Todd, N. E. (2005). Reanalysis of African Elephas recki: Implications for time, space and taxonomy. Quaternary International Volumes 126–128: 65–72.
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