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The species of Pteromalus that attack tephritids are idiobiont larval parasitoids. Pteromalus semotus (Walker) has been obtained from cultivated olives heavily infested with olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) that were attacked by Bracon celer Szépligeti in South Africa (Neuenschwander 1982). Pteromalus semotus is an ectophagous hyperparasitoid of B. celer (Monaco 1976). Pteromalus ortalus has been collected from Rhagoletis spp. infesting Berberis in Europe (Hoffmeister 1992). Another species of Pteromalus has been reared in association with olive fly in California (T. Kapaun thesis, California State Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo).
See also the Pteromalidae page.