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Various species of Spalangia have been reared from fruit-infesting tephritids. These are polyphagous pupal parasitoids, and nearly always solitary (Dresner 1954). In addition to S. afra, about which little is known other that the original rearings from Ceratitis anonae and other Tephritidae (Silvestri 1914), Spalangia cameroni and S. endius have also been occasionally reared from tephritid puparia. Both have been reported from Anastrepha spp. in the U.S. (Baranowski and Swanson 1970).


Publications by Gibson (2006, 2009) provide some important nomenclatural updates, some recent literature references to biology, and a revision of New World species. Some of the species used in filth fly control have also been reported from tephritid puparia, and most of the biological information on Spalangia comes from work on filth flies.


The species of Spalangia are readily recognized by the the shape of the head, with antennae inserted low on the face (Fig. 1), elongate, depressed body (Fig. 1), and the shape and sculpture of the pro and mesothorax (Figs. 1-3).


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© Robert Wharton

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