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Mice of the genus Peromyscus, which have a broad geographic and ecological distribution across North and Central America, have been of great interest to biologists for over a century. Fifty-six species are recognized by Wilson and Reeder (2005), but this number is likely to change with further systematic and taxonomic studies (e.g., López-González et al. 2013; Castañeda-Rico et al. 2014; Bradley et al. 2014).

Bradley et al. (2007) included 44 species of Peromyscus (sensu stricto) in a phylogenetic analysis of Peromyscus and related taxa based on mitochondrial DNA. References cited in Bradley et al. provide an excellent entry into the extensive literature on Peromyscus, including their ecology, behavior, physiology, reproductive and developmental biology, biochemistry, chromosomal evolution, allozymes, cytogenetics, speciation, and biogeography, as well as their important roles as reservoirs for rodent-borne pathogens affecting humans including Lyme Disease bacteria, hantaviruses, and arenaviruses. In recognition of how extensively some members of the genus have been studied, Dewey and Dawson (2001) referred to Peromyscus as "the Drosophila of North American mammalogy".

(Bradley et al. 2007 and references therein)

The species-level classification of the genus Peromyscus was revised by Osgood (1909), Hooper (1968), and Carleton (1980,1989). Miller and Engstrom (2008) investigated the phylogenetic relationships among Peromyscus and related genera. The biology and evolution of Peromyscus were monographed by King (1968) and Kirkland and Layne (1989). Jasarevik et al. (2013) studied the associations of maternal life history characteristics with monogamy and parental investment in offspring across five Peromyscus species.

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