Overview

Brief Summary

Pinus, the pines, is a genus of around 115-120 species of coniferous trees that grow widely around the northern hemisphere from cold boreal to tropical regions. They are abundant over large areas of the huge boreal taiga forests, but species diversity there is low, with only five species (Pinus sylvestris in Europe and Asia, Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila in Asia, and Pinus banksiana and Pinus contorta in North America); species diversity is much greater in mountain forests at lower latitudes, being high between 20° to 45°N, and at a maximum in Mexico, California, and southern China. The northernmost and most widely distributed is Pinus sylvestris, reaching well north of the Arctic Circle at 71°N in Norway, and the southernmost is Pinus merkusii, which reaches just south of the Equator at 2°S in Sumatra. Several species are rare, and some critically endangered; the rarest is Pinus squamata, with under 40 individuals in Yunnan, SW China. The genus is divided into two subgenera, subgenus Pinus (hard pines) with a double vascular bundle in the leaves, and subgenus Strobus (soft pines) with a single vascular bundle in the leaves. Subgenus Strobus has sometimes also been divided into two subgenera, subgenus Strobus in a strict sense (white pines) with cone scales with a terminal umbo, and subgenus Ducampopinus (lacebark, pinyon and bristlecone pines) with cone scales with a dorsal umbo (in which they resemble subgenus Pinus), but this morphological subdivision does not match genetic relationships, and the two are now combined. Each of the two subgenera are further divided into several sections. The most distinct pines both genetically and morphologically are Pinus nelsonii from NE Mexico, and Pinus krempfii from southern Vietnam, both are classified in monotypic sections and probably very early separated from other pines. Pines are small to very large trees; the tallest are Pinus lambertiana and Pinus ponderosa, both from western North America, which both reach just over 80 metres tall and 2-3 metres trunk diameter. By contrast, Pinus culminicola from NE Mexico, Pinus pumila from NE Asia, and Pinus mugo subsp. mugo from central Europe, are all shrubby plants rarely exceeding 3-4 metres high. Pines have three types of leaves. Firstly on seedlings 1-2 years (rarely to 5 years or more) old, spirally arranged green or glaucous-green needle-like juvenile leaves which range from 2-6 cm long on. Then on adult foliage, two types, brown scale-leaves a few millimetres long on the branches, and clusters (fascicles) of green needles in the axils of the scale leaves, with two, three or five (rarely one, four or six) needles per fascicle; it is these fascicles that are the familiar pine needles. The needles are evergreen, with persistence ranging from 2 to 45 years; they are semicircular or triangular in cross-section, often sharply pointed, and have lines of stomata (breathing pores) on all sides or just on the adaxial side (as also in spruces Picea, but unlike other Pinaceae genera where the stomata are concentrated on the abaxial side). Needle length varies from 2 cm (in Pinus banksiana) up to 45 cm (in Pinus palustris, Pinus devoniana and Pinus engelmannii) and thickness from 0.5-3 mm. The pollen cones are 10-50 mm long, and shed soon after pollen release in spring. The seed cones are produced in spring and in most species mature over two growing seasons 18-24 months later (longer, over three growing seasons in a few, up to 36 months in Pinus pinea); they are erect at first when pollinated, then turn sideways to pendulous as they mature; length varies from 3 cm (in several species) to 65 cm (in Pinus lambertiana) and colour from yellow-green to red to dark purple. The cone scales have a distinct umbo (uniquely indistinct in Pinus nelsonii) which comprises the first season's growth and apophysis, which develops in the second season. Species with a three growing season development have an umbo with a concentric ring from the second season, and the apophysis in the third season. In several species, the cones have thick, armoured scales and spined umbos as a defence against seed predators (primarily squirrels Sciuridae); this development is most extreme in Pinus coulteri, where the ripe cones may weigh 3-4 kg. There are two winged seeds under each cone scale; the seeds are blackish-brown to golden-brown, and range from 3 mm (in Pinus banksiana) to 28 mm (in Pinus maximartinezii) long. In species with small seeds, the seed wings are long, and effective for wind dispersal, while in species with large seeds, the wings are vestigial and the seeds are dispersed by birds, mainly various genera in the family Corvidae (notably Aphelocoma, Cyanopica, Gymnorhinus, and Nucifraga). Species with bird-dispersed seeds typically have many features of the cone such as soft scales which also aid bird access. Pines are a major source of commercial wood throughout the world, with extensive plantations both throughout the native range of the genus, and also widely in the southern hemisphere. The wood is used for general construction, plywood, interior finishing, boxes, and also for pulp and paper. Pines are used to a small extent as Christmas trees, although they are not as popular as spruces or firs (Abies species). Pine resin is extensively used to produce turpentine. Several pines are widely planted as landscape and ornamental trees, and numerous cultivars have been developed, with variations in growth rates, needle colour, and form.

  • Selected literature:
  • Businský, R. (2008). The Genus Pinus L., Pines. Acta Pruhoniciana 88: 1-126.
  • Farjon, A. (2005). Pines: Drawings and Descriptions of the Genus Pinus, 2nd ed. Koeltz Scientific.
  • Gernandt, D. S., et al. (2005). Phylogeny and classification of Pinus. Taxon 54 (1): 29–42.
  • Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan.
  • Lanner, R. M. (1996). Made for Each Other: A Symbiosis of Pines and Birds. Oxford.
  • Mirov, N. T. (1967). The Genus Pinus. Ronald.
  • Richardson, D. M., ed. (1998). Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge.
  • Rushforth, K. (1987). Conifers. Helm.
  • Syring, J., et al. (2007). Widespread Genealogical Nonmonophyly in Species of Pinus Subgenus Strobus. Syst. Bot. 56 (2): 163–181.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

Evergreen trees with branches ± whorled. Branches of 2 kinds: (a) main branches bearing only scale-like leaves lacking chlorophyll and (b) deciduous short shoots bearing a number (usually 2,3 or 5) of green needle-like leaves in a common sheath. Ripe cones with woody scales. Seeds winged (in ours), 2 per cone scale.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Synonym

(= P. hwangshanensis W. Y. Hsia X P. massoniana Lamb.).
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Ecology

Associations

Plant / associate
Abdera triguttata is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / web feeder
communal larva of Acantholyda erythrocephala feeds from web on needle of Pinus

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
superficial hysterothecium of Actidium hysterioides is saprobic on bark of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
Aeolothrips vittatus may be found on Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Agaricus gennadii is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Agaricus subfloccosus is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Alysidium anamorph of Alysidium resinae is saprobic on rotten wood of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ampedus balteatus feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ampedus elongantulus feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ampedus nigrinus feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ampedus sanguinolentus feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
Amphinema angustispora is saprobic on fallen bark of Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Ampulloclitocybe clavipes is associated with Pinus

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Amylostereum chailletii grows on dead, fallen trunk of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Anastrangalia sanguinolenta feeds within dead wood of Pinus

Plant / associate
Anatis ocellata is associated with Pinus

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodia gossypium grows on dead, decayed wood of Pinus

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodia serialis grows on dead wood of Pinus

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodia sinuosa grows on partially burnt wood of Pinus

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodia xantha grows on stump of Pinus

Plant / associate
Aphidecta obliterata is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, linearly arranged, scattered to confluent pycnidium of Aposphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Aposphaeria bicuspidata is saprobic on dead wood of plank of Pinus
Remarks: season: 12-1

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, linearly arranged, scattered to confluent pycnidium of Aposphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Aposphaeria epileuca is saprobic on dead, bleached wood of plank of Pinus
Remarks: season: 12

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Arhopalus ferus feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Arhopalus rusticus feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Armillaria tabescens is saprobic on dead root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
Endostilbum anamorph of Ascocoryne albidum is saprobic on dead Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
clustered Coryne anamorph of Ascocoryne sarcoides is saprobic on dead branch of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Asemum striatum feeds within dead bark (under) of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Asterostroma laxum is saprobic on decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / feeds on
imago of Atractotomus mirificus feeds on Pinus

Plant / associate
Aulonium ruficorne is associated with under bark of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Auriscalpium vulgare is saprobic on decayed, buried or partly buried cone of Pinus
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Baeospora myosura is saprobic on decayed, often partly buried cone of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Basidiodendron radians is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Basidiodendron spinosum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Bjerkandera adusta is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
larva of Blera fallax is saprobic on wet, decaying root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Boidinia furfuracea is saprobic on fallen bark of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus badius is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus moravicus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus pseudosulphureus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Alysidium anamorph of Botryobasidium aureum is saprobic on rotten wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Acladium anamorph of Botryobasidium conspersum is saprobic on dead bark of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium bloxamii is saprobic on rotten bark of Pinus

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Bupalus piniaria grazes on live leaf of Pinus
Remarks: season: 6-9
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Byssomerulius corium is saprobic on fallen, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spinner
caterpillar of Cacoecimorpha pronubana spins live leaf of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Cacumisporium dematiaceous anamorph of Cacumisporium capitulatum is saprobic on dead wood of Pinus

Plant / resting place / within
larva of Callicera rufa may be found in rot hole of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Calocera pallidospathulata is saprobic on decayed wood of Pinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Calocybe obscurissima is associated with Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
basidiome of Cantharellus tubaeformis is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / feeds on
Cenangoimyces coelomycetous anamorph of Cenangiomyces luteus feeds on dead needle of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, solitary apothecium of Cenangium acuum is saprobic on rotting needle of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, often grouped apothecium of Cenangium ferruginosum is saprobic on dead branch (small) of Pinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Ceratocystis coerulescens is saprobic on blue-stained wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Ceratosporella dematiaceous anamorph of Ceratosporella novae-zelandiae is saprobic on dead wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara affinis is saprobic on fallen, rotting needle of Pinus
Remarks: season: 10-7

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara cylindrosperma is saprobic on needle litter of Pinus
Remarks: season: 10-2

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara dennisii is saprobic on rotting cone of Pinus
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara fusidioides is saprobic on dead needle of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara inflatipes is saprobic on bark of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara longipes is saprobic on dead Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara microspora is saprobic on dead Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara ovoidea is saprobic on dead Pinus

Plant / associate
basidiome of Chalciporus piperatus is associated with Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Cheiromycella dematiaceous anamorph of Cheiromycella microscopica is saprobic on dead wood of Pinus

Foodplant / feeds on
basidiome of Chondrostereum purpureum feeds on dying or dead Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Chroogomphus rutilus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus

Plant / associate
Chrysanthia nigricornis is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
solitary or occasionally clustered apothecium of Ciliolarina laricina is saprobic on dead cone of Pinus
Remarks: season: 8-1

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Clitocybe ditopa is saprobic on dead, rotting litter of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Clitocybe inornata is saprobic on dead, rotting litter of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Clitopilus hobsonii is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Collybia maculata is saprobic on decayed litter of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza
fruitbody of Coltricia perennis is mycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Coniocleonus hollbergi feeds on roots? of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coniophora arida is saprobic on decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coniophora olivacea is saprobic on decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
Corticeus fraxini is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
Corticeus linearis is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius aureomarginatus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius brunneus var. brunneus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius cinnamomeoluteus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius cinnamomeus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius claricolor is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius croceus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
mycelium of Cortinarius integerrimus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
mycelium of Cortinarius mucifluus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius mucosus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius pholideus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius purpureus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius quarciticus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius semisanguineus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius spilomeus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius stillatitius is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius subtortus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius traganus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius variicolor is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius violaceus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Plant / associate
perithecium of Cosmospora purtonii is associated with dead, fungus infected branch of Pinus
Remarks: season: 3-7

Plant / associate
Cossonus linearis is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
loose, cotton colony of Costantinella anamorph of Costantinella micheneri is saprobic on woody debris of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Costantinella dematiaceous anamorph of Costantinella terrestris is saprobic on fallen twig of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Crepidotus applanatus var. subglobiger is saprobic on decayed, fallen trunk of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
embedded stroma of Cryptodiscus rhopaloides is saprobic on dead branch of Pinus
Remarks: season: 6-11

Foodplant / parasite
stromatic, clustered pseudothecium of Curreya pityophila parasitises branch of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Cylindrobasidium laeve is saprobic on dead, rotting Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Cylindrocladium anamorph of Cylindrocladium parvum is saprobic on dead Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dacrymyces minor is saprobic on decayed wood of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dacrymyces punctiformis is saprobic on decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dacryobolus karstenii is saprobic on fallen, decayed, decorticate trunk (large) of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Dactylaria anamorph of Dactylaria lepida is saprobic on dead, fallen needle of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Dasyscyphella mughonicola is saprobic on dead needle of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Diacanthous undulatus feeds within wood of Pinus

Fungus / saprobe
erumpent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on dead needle of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Diplococcium dematiaceous anamorph of Diplococcium spicatum is saprobic on dead, often rotting wood of Pinus

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Diprion pini grazes on live needle (previous year's) of Pinus
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Diprion simile grazes on needle of Pinus
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dryocoetes autographus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza
fruitbody of Elaphomyces granulatus is mycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Endophragmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Endophragmiella biseptata is saprobic on fallen twig of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Endophragmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Endophragmiella boewei is saprobic on cone of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Endoxylina pini is saprobic on locally blackened, decorticate wood of Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Entoloma cuneatum is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Entoloma dichroum is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Entoloma inutile is associated with live Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Entoloma testaceum is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Entoloma turbidum is associated with Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Eremotes ater feeds on Pinus

Plant / associate
larva of Eriozona syrphoides is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ernobius angusticollis feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ernobius mollis feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ernobius nigrinus feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
Exochalara anamorph of Exochalara longissima is saprobic on Pinus

Plant / associate
Exochomus quadripustulatus is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Acrogenospora dematiaceous anamorph of Farlowiella carmichaeliana is saprobic on dead bark of Pinus
Remarks: season: 2-4

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Fayodia bisphaerigera is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Fomes fomentarius parasitises live, standing trunk of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, +- oblong, conical, immersed, then erumpent, spuriously multilocular stroma of Fusicoccum coelomycetous anamorph of Fusicoccum bacillare is saprobic on dead bark of Pinus
Remarks: season: 1-4

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Galerina ampullaceocystis is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Galerina heimansii is associated with Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Galerina viscidula is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Ganoderma applanatum parasitises live trunk of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum coronatum is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum fimbriatum is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum fornicatum is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum pectinatum is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum schmidelii is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum striatum is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
sometimes effuse Gliocladium anamorph of Gliocladium roseum is saprobic on wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gloeophyllum sepiarium is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed log (large) of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gloeophyllum trabeum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Gomphidius roseus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / pathogen
Brunchorstia anamorph of Gremmeniella abietina infects and damages live twig of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gymnopilus decipiens is saprobic on burnt wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gymnopilus junonius is saprobic on decayed wood of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gymnopilus liquiritiae is saprobic on decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gymnopilus picreus is saprobic on decayed wood of Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hebeloma mesophaeum var. mesophaeum is associated with root of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hemimycena lactea is saprobic on dead debris of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hemimycena mauretanica is saprobic on decayed debris of Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hohenbuehelia petaloides is associated with Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hohenbuehelia unguicularis is saprobic on dead, decayed, fallen twig of Pinus

Plant / resting place / on
female micropter of Hoplothrips polysticti may be found on dead wood of Pinus
Remarks: season: 2-6,8-9

Plant / resting place / on
larva of Hoplothrips unicolor may be found on dead branch of Pinus
Remarks: season: 2-11

Fungus / saprobe
apothecium of Hyalopeziza trichodea is saprobic on black, decaying needle of Pinus
Remarks: season: 4-6

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Hyaloscypha leuconica is saprobic on dead wood of Pinus
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hydnum repandum is associated with Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hygrophorus agathosmus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hygrophorus hypothejus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hygrophorus lucorum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hygrophorus mesotephrus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylastes angustatus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylastes ater feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylastes attenuatus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylastes brunneus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylastes opacus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylobius abietis feeds within dead stump of Pinus

Foodplant / feeds on
Hylocoetus dermestoides feeds on Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylurgops palliatus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Plant / associate
epigeous or hypogeous fruitbody of Hymenogaster citrinus is associated with Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
epigeous or hypogeous fruitbody of Hymenogaster luteus is associated with Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphoderma pallidum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia breviseta is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia pallidula is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia rimosissima is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia subalutacea is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying wood of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypholoma marginatum is saprobic on dead, decayed woodships of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypochniciellum molle is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypochniciellum subillaqueatum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypochnicium multiforme is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Trichoderma dematiaceous anamorph of Hypocrea rufa is saprobic on rotten wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Hysterium acuminatum is saprobic on bark of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe calamistrata is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe heimii is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe inodora is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe muricellata is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe proximella is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe rimosa is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe sambucina is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe squamata is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ips acuminatus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ips cembrae feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ips sexdentatus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ips typographus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Ischnoderma benzoinum is saprobic on dead, fallen trunk (large) of Pinus

Foodplant / web feeder
communal larva of Itycorsia posticalis feeds from web on needle of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Jaapia argillacea is saprobic on decayed, dead wood of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Judolia sexmaculata feeds within exposed root of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, subiculate perithecium of Klasterskya acuum is saprobic on rotting, fallen needle of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
caespitose fruitbody of Kuehneromyces mutabilis is saprobic on decayed, dead stump (large) of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, clustered apothecium of Lachnellula pseudofarinacea is saprobic on fallen branch of Pinus
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Lachnum papyraceum is saprobic on decorticate branch of Pinus
Remarks: season: 10

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius camphoratus is ectomycorrhizal with root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius deliciosus is ectomycorrhizal with root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius flexuosus var. flexuosus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius helvus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius hepaticus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius hysginus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius rufus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius semisanguifluus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius trivialis is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Laetiporus sulphureus is saprobic on trunk of old tree of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Leccinum roseotinctum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lepiota castanea is saprobic on soil of tree of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lepiota magnispora is saprobic on decayed leaf of litter of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leptoporus mollis is saprobic on dead wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leptosporomyces fuscostratus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed bark of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leptosporomyces galzinii is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucoagaricus georginae is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of litter of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucoagaricus ionidicolor is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucocoprinus brebissonii is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of litter of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucogyrophana mollusca is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
resupinate fruitbody of Leucogyrophana pinastri is saprobic on dead, decayed, brown-rotted wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucogyrophana sororia is saprobic on dead, very decayed, brown rotted bark of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, stromatic, in groups of 3 to 15 perithecium of Leucostoma curreyi is saprobic on dead branch of Pinus
Remarks: season: 1-3

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Lichenopeltella pinophylla is saprobic on dead, fallen needle of Pinus
Remarks: season: 2-7
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
apothecium of Lophodermella sulcigena causes spots on live needle of Pinus

Fungus / saprobe
immersed conidioma of Leptostroma coelomycetous anamorph of Lophodermium conigenum is saprobic on needle of Pinus
Remarks: season: 10-11
Other: minor host/prey

Fungus / saprobe
immersed conidioma of Leptostroma coelomycetous anamorph of Lophodermium pinastri is saprobic on fallen, dead needle of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Luellia recondita is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Lycoperdon caudatum is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Lycoperdon echinatum is associated with Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / associate
Magdalis duplicata is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / feeds on
Magdalis memnonia feeds on dead branch of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Plant / associate
Magdalis phlegmatica is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Mariannaea anamorph of Mariannaea elegans is saprobic on bark of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Megacollybia platyphylla is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial pycnidium of Aposphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Melanomma pulvis-pyrius is saprobic on dry, hard, decorticate branch wood of Pinus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Plant / associate
Melanophila acuminata is associated with in/under scorched bark of Pinus

Plant / associate
larva of Meliscaeva cinctella is associated with aphid-infested Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Meripilus giganteus is saprobic on dead trunk (large) of Pinus

Plant / associate
larva of Microdon analis is associated with under well decayed bark of stump, log of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Micromphale brassicolens var. pallidus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed leaf of litter of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia cinerea is saprobic on dead wood of Pinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Monodictys dematiaceous anamorph of Monodictys lepraria is saprobic on dead, dry, decorticate branch of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
larva of Myathropa florea is saprobic on rot hole of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena capillaripes is saprobic on dead, decayed needle of litter of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena dasypus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed needle of litter of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena metata is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying needle of litter of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena sanguinolenta is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying, often moss-covered wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
toadstool of Mycena vulgaris is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying needle of litter of Pinus

Foodplant / pathogen
Dothistroma coelomycetous anamorph of Mycosphaerella pini infects and damages live needle of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Mytilinidion gemmigenum is saprobic on bark of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Mytilinidion mytilinellum is saprobic on rotting cone of Pinus
Remarks: season: 10-11

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Mytilinidion rhenanum is saprobic on wood or bark of Pinus

Plant / associate
Myzia oblongoguttata is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
synnema of Fusarium anamorph of Nectria flavoviridis is saprobic on dead branch of Pinus
Remarks: season: 2-5

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nectria viridescens is saprobic on bark of Pinus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Neodiprion sertifer grazes on live needle (previous year's) of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Niesslia exilis is saprobic on decaying needle of Pinus
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Obrium brunneum feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
Oidiodendron dematiaceous anamorph of Oidiodendron griseum is saprobic on rotten wood of Pinus
Remarks: season: 9-1

Foodplant / saprobe
Oidiodendron dematiaceous anamorph of Oidiodendron rhodogenum is saprobic on rotten, decorticate wood of Pinus

Foodplant / spinner
colonial Oligonychus ununguis spins live, yellowed foliage of Pinus
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Oliveonia nodosa is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Oncopodiella dematiaceous anamorph of Oncopodiella trigonella is saprobic on rotten wood of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Orthotomicus erosus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Orthotomicus laricis feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Orthotomicus suturalis feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / feeds on
Otiorhynchus scaber feeds on Pinus

Plant / resting place / on
female of Oxythrips ajugae may be found on male catkin of Pinus
Remarks: season: 1,4-7,9-10

Plant / resting place / on
female of Oxythrips bicolor may be found on male catkin of Pinus
Remarks: season: 1,4-7,10

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pachnocybe anamorph of Pachnocybe ferruginea is saprobic on sawn timber of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Panellus mitis is saprobic on dead, fallen brash of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Parasympodiella dematiaceous anamorph of Parasympodiella clarkii is saprobic on dead, fallen twig of Pinus
Remarks: season: 11-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Paullicorticium pearsonii is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Paxillus involutus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pellidiscus pallidus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed needle of litter of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora pini is saprobic on dead, attached twig of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Pestalotiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotiopsis funerea is saprobic on dead Pinus

Foodplant / gall
larva of Petrova resinella causes gall of resin of Pinus

Fungus / saprobe
Cryptosporiopsis anamorph of Pezicula livida is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
subsessile, pulvinate apothecium of Pezizella pulvinata is saprobic on needle of Pinus

Fungus / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Pezizella subtilis is saprobic on fallen, dead needle of Pinus
Remarks: season: 10-11

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Phaeoisaria dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeoisaria clavulata is saprobic on rotten wood of Pinus

Foodplant / pathogen
fruitbody of Phaeolus schweinitzii infects and damages live root of mature tree of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Phaeostalagmus dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeostalagmus tenuissimus is saprobic on litter of Pinus

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Phellinus ferreus parasitises living trunk of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Phoenicocoris obscurellus sucks sap of Pinus
Remarks: season: 6-8

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota flammans is saprobic on dead, decayed stump (large) of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Pholiota mixta is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota scamba is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota squarrosa is saprobic on relatively freshly cut, white rotted stump of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Pisolithus arrhizus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Pissodes castaneus feeds on dead or dying twig of Pinus

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Pissodes pini grazes on leaf of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pissodes validirostris feeds within cone of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pityogenes bidentatus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pityogenes chalcographus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pityogenes trepanatus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Plant / associate
Pityophagus ferrugineus is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pityophthorus lichtensteini feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pityophthorus pubescens feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Plesiodema pinetellum sucks sap of Pinus
Remarks: season: mid 6-late 7
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus atromarginatus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pogonocherus fasciculatus feeds within dead branch of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Polygraphus poligraphus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus squamosus is saprobic on dead, decaying wood of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Polyscytalum dematiaceous anamorph of Polyscytalum verrucosum is saprobic on dead twig of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Porphyrellus porphyrosporus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Porpoloma elytroides is associated with Pinus
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia balsamea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia caesia is saprobic on dead wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia hibernica is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk of Pinus

Foodplant / parasite
dominant Ptychogaster anamorph of Postia ptychogaster parasitises live Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia stiptica is saprobic on dead, decayed log (large) cut end of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia tephroleuca is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk (large) of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia wakefieldiae is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Prionus coriarius feeds within moribund root of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Psathyrella caput-medusae is saprobic on decayed stump (large) of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Fungus / saprobe
conidioma of Pseudocenangium coelomycetous anamorph of Pseudocenangium succineum is saprobic on fallen, dead needle of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, solitary or occasionally in clusters of 3-4 apothecium of Pseudographis pinicola is saprobic on dead branch of Pinus
Remarks: season: 3-4

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pseudohydnum gelatinosum is saprobic on dead, decayed (very) stump (large) of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pseudomerulius aureus is saprobic on dead, decayed (very) wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Pseudospiropes obclavatus is saprobic on fallen branch of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pseudotomentella mucidula is saprobic on dead, decayed (very) wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Radulomyces confluens is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Ramaria abietina is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed needle of litter of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Ramaria decurrens is associated with Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Resinicium bicolor is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhagium bifasciatum feeds within dead wood of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhagium inquisitor feeds within bark (under) of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhagium mordax feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Rhizina undulata infects and damages root of seedling of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
subhypogeous fruitbody of Rhizopogon luteolus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
hypogeous fruitbody of Rhizopogon ochraceorubens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
hypogeous (often deeply buried) fruitbody of Rhizopogon roseolus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
hypogeous fruitbody of Rhizopogon vinicolor is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Rhodocybe roseoavellanea is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / gall
caterpillar of Rhyacionia buoliana causes gall of shoot (young) of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Rhyncolus ater feeds on dead wood of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
subiculate perithecium of Rosellinia thelena is saprobic on debris of Pinus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula anthracina is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula aquosa is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula brunneoviolacea is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula caerulea is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula exalbicans is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula helodes is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula luteotacta is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula nitida is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula queletii is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula turci is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula xerampelina (s.s) is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rutpela maculata feeds within damp, rotting wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
Salpingus castaneus is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
larva of Scaeva selenitica is associated with aphid-infested Pinus

Plant / associate
Scymnus nigrinus is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
Scymnus suturalis is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Serpula himantioides is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Skeletocutis amorpha is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (large) of Pinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Skeletocutis nivea is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Spadicoides dematiaceous anamorph of Spadicoides bina is saprobic on dead wood of Pinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sparassis crispa is saprobic on dead root of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
erumpent pycnidium of Sphaeropsis coelomycetous anamorph of Sphaeropsis sapinea infects and damages live cone of Pinus
Remarks: season: 10-4

Fungus / saprobe
clustered apothecium of Spooneromyces asperula is saprobic on fallen, dead debris of Pinus
Remarks: season: 11

Fungus / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium doliiforme is saprobic on rotting cone of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium goidanichii is saprobic on dead branch of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporoschisma dematiaceous anamorph of Sporoschisma juvenile is saprobic on bark of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Steccherinum fimbriatum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stereum sanguinolentum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed conidioma of Strasseria coelomycetous anamorph of Strasseria geniculata is saprobic on dead needle of Pinus
Remarks: season: 1-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Antennatula dematiaceous anamorph of Strigopodia resinae is saprobic on resinous exudate of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Strobilomyces strobilaceus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
long-rooted fruitbody of Strobilurus stephanocystis is saprobic on buried, partially decayed cone of Pinus
Remarks: season: often in spring
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
long-rooted fruitbody of Strobilurus tenacellus is saprobic on buried, partially decayed cone of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stypella glaira is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Suillus collinitus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Suillus granulatus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Suillus luteus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus

Foodplant / secondary infection
erumpent pycnidium of Sclerophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Sydowia polyspora secondarily infects gall-midge infected needle of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Taeniolina anamorph of Taeniolina scripta is saprobic on dead bark of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Tapinella atrotomentosa is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Tephrocybe cessans is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tetropium castaneum feeds within wood of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tetropium gabrieli feeds within wood of Pinus

Plant / associate
Thanasimus formicarius is associated with Pinus

Plant / associate
Thanasimus rufipes is associated with Pinus

Foodplant / gall
larva of Thecodiplosis brachyntera causes gall of needle of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Thelephora palmata is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Therrya fuckelii is saprobic on dead, fallen twig of Pinus
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tomicus minor feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tomicus piniperda feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes gibbosa is saprobic on dead, decayed stump (large) of Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Trametes versicolor parasitises live Pinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trechispora kavinioides is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed twig of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trichaptum abietinum is saprobic on dead, felled, stacked trunk of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Trichoderma anamorph of Trichoderma polysporum is saprobic on wood of Pinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Tricholoma aurantium is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Tricholoma imbricatum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Tricholoma inocybeoides is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Tricholoma psammopus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Tricholoma terreum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Tricholoma vaccinum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Tricholomopsis rutilans is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Trisetacus pini causes gall of stem of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
Tubulicrinis regificus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Pinus

Fungus / saprobe
conidioma of coelomycetous anamorph of Tympanis hypopodia is saprobic on cut, corticate branch (small) of Pinus
Remarks: season: 11

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
live mycelium of Wilcoxina is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Xeromphalina cauticinalis is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed needle of litter of Pinus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Xyloterus lineatus feeds within cambium of Pinus

Foodplant / saprobe
Zalerion maritima is saprobic on intertidal wood of Pinus

Plant / associate
Zilora ferruginea is associated with Pinus

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Known predators

  • D. I. Rasmussen, Biotic communities of Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, Ecol. Monogr. 11(3):228-275, from p. 261 (1941).
  • H. E. Savely, 1939. Ecological relations of certain animals in dead pine and oak logs. Ecol. Monogr. 9:321-385, from pp. 335, 353-56, 377-85.
  • O. W. Richards, 1926. Studies on the ecology of English heaths III. Animal communities of the felling and burn successions at Oxshott Heath, Surrey. J. Ecol. 14:244-281, from pp. 263-64.
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Cone scales are humidity-sensitive: pine
 

The scales of pine cones flex passively in response to changes in moisture levels via a two-layered structure.

   
  "Dr Jeronimidis is now taking this concept further by using adaptive materials that flex in response to the level of moisture in the air—an idea borrowed from the way pine-cones open and close. Using a cellulose-like fibre composite, he has created a vent that changes from one curved shape to another, depending on the relative levels of moisture inside and outside a building. When warm, moist air builds up inside the building, the vent opens to allow it to escape. But when the air inside is dry, the vent stays shut and moist air from outdoors is kept out. 'In principle it can be made to respond naturally, without any additional power,' says Dr Jeronimidis." (The Economist 2007)

"The mechanism of bending therefore seems to depend on the way that the orientation of cellulose microfibrils controls the hygroscopic expansion of the cells in the two layers. In sclerids, the microfibrils are wound around the cell (high winding angle) allowing it to elongate when damp. Fibres have the microfibrils orientated along the cell (low winding angle) which resists elongation. The ovuliferous scale therefore functions as a bilayer similar to a bimetallic strip, but responding to humidity instead of heat." (Dawson et al. 1997:668)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Dawson, C.; Vincent, J. F. V.; Rocca, A. M. 1997. How pine cones open. NATURE-LONDON-. 668-668.
  • Reyssat E; Mahadevan L. 2009. Hygromorphs: from pine cones to biomimetic bilayers. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 6: 951-957.
  • 2007. Borrowing from nature. The Economist [Internet], Accessed 9/12/2007.
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Functional adaptation

Structures facilitate pollen dispersal: pine trees
 

The pollen of some pine trees disperses great distances on the wind with the help of laterally placed, bladder-like structures.

     
  "The pollen of some species of pine has bladders that help it to fly." (Attenborough 1995:96)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pinus sp.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Pine

This article is about the tree. For other uses of the term "pine", see Pine (disambiguation).

Pines are conifer trees in the genus Pinus /ˈpns/,[1] in the family Pinaceae. They are the only genus in the subfamily Pinoideae. Counting varieties and subspecies, the plant list of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden accepts 175 names of pines as current, together with some thirty or forty unresolved and many more synonyms or misapplied.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The modern English name pine derives from Latin pinus which some have traced to the Indo-European base *pīt- ‘resin’ (source of English pituitary.[3] In the past (pre-19th century) they were often known as fir, from Old Norse fyrre, by way of Middle English firre. The Old Norse name is still used for pines in some modern north European languages, in Danish fyr, in Norwegian fura/fure/furu, Swedish fura/furu, Dutch vuren, and Föhre in German, but in modern English, fir is now restricted to Fir (Abies) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga). Also the pine needle is often associated with good will among Canadians. Especially around Christmas time.

Taxonomy, nomenclature and codification[edit]

Main article: Pinus classification

Pines are gymnosperms. The genus is divided into three subgenera, based on cone, seed and leaf characters:

  • Pinus subg. Pinus, the yellow, or hard pine group, generally with harder wood and two or three needles per fascicle.[4]
  • Pinus subg. Ducampopinus, the foxtail or pinyon group
  • Pinus subg. Strobus, the white, or soft pine group, generally with softer wood and five needles per fascicle.[4]

Distribution[edit]

A Khasi pine in Benguet, Philippines

Most regions of the Northern Hemisphere (see List of pines by region) host some native species of pines. One species (Sumatran pine) crosses the equator in Sumatra to 2°S. In North America, various species occur in regions at latitudes from as far as 66°N to as far south as 12°N.

Various species have been introduced to temperate and subtropical regions of both hemispheres, where they are grown as timber or cultivated as ornamental plants in parks and gardens. A number of such introduced species have become invasive[5] and threaten native ecosystems.

Description[edit]

Pines are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees (or rarely shrubs) growing 3–80 m tall, with the majority of species reaching 15–45 m tall. The smallest are Siberian dwarf pine and Potosi pinyon, and the tallest is a 268.35-foot (81.79-meter) tall ponderosa pine located in southern Oregon's Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest.[6]

The bark of most pines is thick and scaly, but some species have thin, flaking bark. The branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls", actually a very tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. Many pines are uninodal, producing just one such whorl of branches each year, from buds at the tip of the year's new shoot, but others are multinodal, producing two or more whorls of branches per year. The spiral growth of branches, needles, and cone scales are arranged in Fibonacci number ratios.[citation needed] The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles"; they are covered in brown or whitish bud scales and point upward at first, then later turn green and spread outward. These "candles" offer foresters a means to evaluate fertility of the soil and vigour of the trees.

Pines are long-lived, typically reaching ages of 100–1,000 years, some even more. The longest-lived is the Great Basin bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva. One individual of this species, dubbed Methuselah, is one of the world's oldest living organisms at around 4,600 years old. This tree can be found in the White Mountains of California.[7] An older tree, unfortunately now cut down, was dated at 4,900 years old. It was discovered in a grove beneath Wheeler Peak and it is now known as Prometheus after the Greek immortal.[citation needed]

Foliage[edit]

Illustration of needles, cones, and seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

Pines have four types of leaf:

  • Seed leaves (cotyledons) on seedlings, borne in a whorl of 4–24.
  • Juvenile leaves, which follow immediately on seedlings and young plants, 2–6 cm long, single, green or often blue-green, and arranged spirally on the shoot. These are produced for six months to five years, rarely longer.
  • Scale leaves, similar to bud scales, small, brown and non-photosynthetic, and arranged spirally like the juvenile leaves.
  • Needles, the adult leaves, which are green (photosynthetic), bundled in clusters (fascicles) of 1–6, commonly 2–5, needles together, each fascicle produced from a small bud on a dwarf shoot in the axil of a scale leaf. These bud scales often remain on the fascicle as a basal sheath. The needles persist for 1.5–40 years, depending on species. If a shoot is damaged (e.g. eaten by an animal), the needle fascicles just below the damage will generate a bud which can then replace the lost leaves.

Cones[edit]

Pines are mostly monoecious, having the male and female cones on the same tree, though a few species are sub-dioecious with individuals predominantly, but not wholly, single-sex. The male cones are small, typically 1–5 cm long, and only present for a short period (usually in spring, though autumn in a few pines), falling as soon as they have shed their pollen. The female cones take 1.5–3 years (depending on species) to mature after pollination, with actual fertilization delayed one year. At maturity the female cones are 3–60 cm long. Each cone has numerous spirally arranged scales, with two seeds on each fertile scale; the scales at the base and tip of the cone are small and sterile, without seeds. The seeds are mostly small and winged, and are anemophilous (wind-dispersed), but some are larger and have only a vestigial wing, and are bird-dispersed (see below). At maturity, the cones usually open to release the seeds, but in some of the bird-dispersed species (e.g. whitebark pine), the seeds are only released by the bird breaking the cones open. In others, the seeds are stored in closed ("serotinous") cones for many years until an environmental cue triggers the cones to open, releasing the seeds. The most common form of serotiny is pyriscence, in which a resin binds the cones shut until melted by a forest fire.

Ecology[edit]

Pines grow well in acid soils, some also on calcareous soils; most require good soil drainage, preferring sandy soils, but a few (e.g. Lodgepole pine) will tolerate poorly drained wet soils. A few are able to sprout after forest fires (e.g. Canary Island pine). Some species of pines (e.g. Bishop pine) need fire to regenerate, and their populations slowly decline under fire suppression regimes. Several species are adapted to extreme conditions imposed by elevation and latitude (e.g. Siberian dwarf pine, mountain pine, whitebark pine and the bristlecone pines). The pinyon pines and a number of others, notably Turkish pine and gray pine, are particularly well adapted to growth in hot, dry semi-desert climates.[citation needed]

The seeds are commonly eaten by birds and squirrels. Some birds, notably the Spotted Nutcracker, Clark's Nutcracker and Pinyon Jay, are of importance in distributing pine seeds to new areas. Pine needles are sometimes eaten by some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species (see list of Lepidoptera that feed on pines), the Symphytan species pine sawfly, and goats.[citation needed]

Uses[edit]

Logging Pinus ponderosa, Arizona, USA
Pinus sylvestris prepared for transport, Hungary

Pines are among the most commercially important tree species valued for their timber and wood pulp throughout the world. In temperate and tropical regions, they are fast-growing softwoods that will grow in relatively dense stands, their acidic decaying needles inhibiting the sprouting of competing hardwoods. Commercial pines are grown in plantations for timber that is denser, more resinous, and therefore more durable than spruce (Picea). Pine wood is widely used in high-value carpentry items such as furniture, window frames, panelling, floors and roofing, and the resin of some species is an important source of turpentine.

Many pine species make attractive ornamental plantings for parks and larger gardens with a variety of dwarf cultivars being suitable for smaller spaces. Pines are also commercially grown and harvested for Christmas trees. Pine cones, the largest and most durable of all conifer cones, are craft favorites. Pine boughs, appreciated especially in wintertime for their pleasant smell and greenery, are popularly cut for decorations. A number of species are attacked by nematodes, causing pine wilt disease, which can kill some quickly. Pine needles are also used for making decorative articles like baskets, trays, pots, etc. This Native American skill is now being replicated across the world. Pine needle handicrafts are made in the US, Canada, Mexico, Nicaragua and India. Pine needles serve as food for various Lepidoptera. See List of Lepidoptera that feed on pines.

Because pines have no insect or decay resistant qualities after logging, they are generally recommended for construction purposes as indoor use only (ex. indoor drywall framing). This wood left outside can be expected to last no more than 12–18 months depending on the local climate. It is commonly referred to by several different names which include North American timber, SPF (spruce, pine, fir) and whitewood.

Food[edit]

Edible seeds of the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)

Some species have large seeds, called pine nuts, that are harvested and sold for cooking and baking. They are an essential ingredient of Pesto alla genovese.

The soft, moist, white inner bark (cambium) found clinging to the woody outer bark is edible and very high in vitamins A and C. It can be eaten raw in slices as a snack or dried and ground up into a powder for use as an ersatz flour or thickener in stews, soups, and other foods, such as bark bread. Adirondack Indians got their name from the Mohawk Indian word atirú:taks, meaning "tree eaters".

Biomedical[edit]

A tea made by steeping young, green pine needles in boiling water (known as "tallstrunt" in Sweden) is high in vitamins A and C.

Pine has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[8] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. However according to Cancer Research UK, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer".[9]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed June 2014)
  3. ^ pine. (2006). In Word Origins. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/acbwordorig/pine
  4. ^ a b Burton Verne Barnes; Warren Herbert Wagner (January 2004). Michigan Trees: A Guide to the Trees of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press. pp. 81–. ISBN 0-472-08921-8. 
  5. ^ "Pinus ssp. (tree), General Impact". Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group. 13 March 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  6. ^ Fattig, Paul (2011-01-23). "Tallest of the tall". Mail Tribune (Medford, Oregon). Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  7. ^ Ryan, Michael; David M. Richardson (December 1999). "The Complete Pine". BioScience 49 (12): 1023–1024. doi:10.2307/1313736. 
  8. ^ D. S. Vohra (1 June 2004). Bach Flower Remedies: A Comprehensive Study. B. Jain Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-7021-271-3. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  9. ^ "Flower remedies". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved September 2013. 

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

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Pinyon pine

The pinyon (or piñon) pine group grows in the southwestern United States and in Mexico. The trees yield edible pinyon nuts, which were a staple of the Native Americans, and are still widely eaten. The wood, especially when burned, has a distinctive fragrance. The pinyon pine trees are also known to influence the soil in which they grow.[1]

Some of the species are known to hybridise, the most notable ones being P. quadrifolia with P. monophylla, and P. edulis with P. monophylla.

The Pinyon Jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus) takes its name from the tree, and pinyon nuts form an important part of its diet. It is very important for regeneration of pinyon woods, as it stores large numbers of the seeds in the ground for later use, and excess seeds not used are in an ideal position to grow into new trees. The Mexican Jay is also important for the dispersal of some pinyon species, as, less often, is the Clark's Nutcracker. Many other species of animal also eat pinyon nuts, without dispersing them.

The pinyon pine is very common in the Grand Canyon

Species [edit]

Genetic differentiation in the pinyon pine has been observed associated to insect herbivory and environmental stress.[2][3]

There are eight species of true pinyons (Pinus subsection Cembroides):[4]

These additional Mexican species are also related and mostly called pinyons:

as are also the three bristlecone pines of the high mountains of the SW USA, and the Lacebark Pines of Asia.

References [edit]

  1. ^ Barth, R.C. (January 1980). "Influence of Pinyon Pine Trees on Soil Chemical and Physical Properties". Soil Science Society of America Journal 44 (1): 112–114. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  2. ^ WHITHAM, THOMAS G.; SUSAN MOPPER (1985-05-31). "Chronic Herbivory: Impacts on Architecture and Sex Expression of Pinyon Pine". Science 228 (4703): 1089–1091. doi:10.1126/science.228.4703.1089. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  3. ^ Mopper, Susan; Jeffry B. Mitton, Thomas G. Whitham, Neil S. Cobb and Kerry M. Christensen (June 1991). "Genetic Differentiation and Heterozygosity in Pinyon Pine Associated with Resistance to Herbivory and Environmental Stress". Evolution 45 (4): 989–999. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Bentancourt, Julio L.; William S. Schuster, Jeffry B. Mitton and R. Scott Anderson (October 1991). "Fossil and Genetic History of a Pinyon Pine (Pinus Edulis) Isolate". Ecology 72 (5): 1685–1697. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
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Notes

Comments

* 800-1400 m. Anhui (Miaodao Shan, Yuexi Xian). 

 Supposed hybrid. Name appeared after publication of the family treatment for the Flora of China.

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