The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Barnes, B.V., and W.H. Wagner. 2004. Michigan Trees: a guide to the trees of the Great Lakes region. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Christenhusz, M. J. M., J. L. Reveal, A. K. Farjon, M. F. Gardner, R. R. Mill & M. W. Chase. 2011. A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa 19: 55–70.
  • Farjon, A. (1990). Pinaceae: Drawings and Descriptions of the Genera. Koeltz Scientific.
  • Farrar, J. 1995. Trees of the Northern United States and Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. Pp. 81–85.
  • Fl. Berlin 1(2): 794. 1824. (Fl. Berlin)
  • Fralish, J.S., and S.B. Franklin. 2002. Taxonomy and Ecology of Woody Plants in North American Forests. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Group, C S. (1998). Picea likiangensis. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Harlow, W.M., E.S. Harrar, J.W. Hardin, and F.M. White. 1991. Textbook of Dendrology. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 160–179.
  • Howard, J. L. 2001. U.S. timber production, trade consumption, and price statistics 1965 to 1999. Res. Pap. FPL-RP-595. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 90 p. Retrieved 12 December 2011 from
  • Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan.
  • Martin, A.C., H.S. Zim, and A.L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife & plants a guide to wildlife food habits: the use of trees, shrubs, weeds, and herbs by birds and mammals of the United States. Prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of Interior. New York: Dover. Pp. 292–3.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali (eds). 1980-2005. Fl. Pakistan Univ. of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Peng, X. L., Zhao C. M., Wu G. L., & Liu J. Q. (2007). Genetic variation and phylogeographic history of Picea likiangensis revealed by RAPD markers. Trees. 21,
  • Plants for a Future (2011). Picea abies - (L.) H.Karst. Online database. Retrieved 12 December 2011 from
  • Plants for a Future. 2011. Picea abies - (L.)H.Karst. From online searchable database. Retrieved 12 December 2011 from
  • Ran, J.-H., Wei, X.-X., & Wang, X.-Q. (2006). Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Picea (Pinaceae): implications for phylogeographical studies using cytoplasmic haplotypes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41 (2): 405–419.
  • Rushforth, K. (1987). Conifers. Helm.
  • Shi, D. X., & Wang M. I. (1994). Karyomorphological studies of 6 species in genus Picea. Acta Botanica Yunnanica. 16,
  • Sigurgeirsson, A., & Szmidt, A. E. (1993). Phylogenetic and biogeographic implications of chloroplast DNA variation in Picea. Nordic J. Botany 13 (3): 233–246.


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