Overview

Brief Summary

Picea, the spruces, is a genus of around 30-40 species of coniferous trees that grow in cold boreal to cool temperate regions around the Northern Hemisphere. They are dominant over vast areas of the huge boreal taiga forests, but species diversity there is low, with only four species (Picea abies in Europe, Picea obovata in Asia, and Picea glauca and Picea mariana in North America); species diversity is much greater in mountain forests at lower latitudes, being highest in southwestern China and Japan. The northernmost is Picea obovata, reaching well north of the Arctic Circle at 72°N in Siberia, and the southernmost is Picea morrisonicola, reaching just south of the Tropic of Cancer at 23°N in Taiwan.

No fully satisfactory infrageneric classification of spruces has been made, and classifications based on morphological data (e.g. Rushforth 1987, Farjon, 1990, Huxley 1992) conflict with those based on genetic data (e.g. Sigurgeirsson & Szmidt 1993, Ran et al. 2006). Species that co-occur may hybridise; the resulting genetic introgression complicates classification. The most distinct spruces morphologically are Picea neoveitchii from NW China, Picea torano from southern Japan, Picea breweriana from the western USA, and Picea martinezii from NE Mexico.

Spruces are medium-sized to very large trees; the largest is Picea sitchensis from western North America, which reaches up to 96 m tall and 5 m trunk diameter. By contrast, Picea mariana can be reproductively mature at just 1 m tall, and in many parts of its range rarely exceeds 10 m tall (though can occasionally reach 30 m tall). They have spirally arranged needle-like leaves which range from 5 mm long (in Picea orientalis) to 50 mm (in Picea smithiana) long; the needles sit individually on a stem projection called a pulvinus. The leaves are evergreen, with persistence ranging from 4 to 12 years; they are rhombic or flattened in cross-section, often sharply pointed, and have lines of often glaucous stomata (breathing pores) on all sides or just on the adaxial side (as also in Pinus, but unlike other Pinaceae genera where the stomata are concentrated on the abaxial side). The seed cones are produced in spring and mature in the autumn 4-8 months later; they are erect at first when pollinated, then turn pendulous as they mature; length varies from 2 cm (in Picea mariana) to 20 cm in (Picea abies) and colour from yellow-green to red to dark purple. There are two winged seeds under each cone scale; the seeds are blackish-brown, and range from 2 mm (in Picea mariana) to 7 mm (in Picea neoveitchii) long. The pollen cones are 10-35 mm long, and shed soon after pollen release in spring.

Spruces are a source of food and nesting sites for various species of birds and mammals: deer and rabbits eat the twigs and needles; porcupines feed on the bark; rodents eat the buds and seeds; and grouse and songbirds eat the seeds.

Spruces are a leading source of commercial wood in many north temperate countries. The wood is an important pulpwood, and is also used for general construction, plywood, interior finishing, boxes, and musical instruments. Spruces are also widely used as Christmas trees, although they are not as popular as firs (Abies species). Spruce resin has been used to produce turpentine. Several spruce species are widely planted as landscape and ornamental trees, and numerous cultivars have been developed, with variations in needle colour and form. Spruce needles can be used to produce spruce beer (alcoholic or non-alcoholic), which is high in vitamin C, and the inner bark can be used to make tea. Spruce resins have been used in North American and European traditional medicine to treat coughs, colds, and respiratory ailments, as well as aches and pains (Plants for a Future 2011).

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Picea, the spruce genus (family: Pinaceae), contains 30–35 species of coniferous trees that grow in boreal, cold, and temperate regions around the Northern Hemisphere, with around half of them native to China and seven native to North America. Species that co-occur may hybridize; the resulting genetic introgression complicates classification. The abundance and popularity of spruces in the U.S. is suggested by the fact that spruce species are the State Trees in three states.

Major species in eastern North American are the P. glauca (white spruce) and P. mariana (black spruce), in the northeastern U.S. and Canada, and P. rubens (red spruce), which grows in the Northeast and at high elevations in the Appalachian Mountains. In Western North America, P. pungens (blue spruce), and P. engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) are important in the Rocky Mountains, while P. sitchensis, Sitka spruce, grows along the Pacific coast from northern California to Alaska. In Europe, the dominant species is Picea abies, Norway spruce, which is a major timber species.

Spruces are a source of food and nesting sites for various species of birds and mammals: deer and rabbits eat the twigs and needles; porcupines feed on the bark; rodents eat the buds and seeds; and grouse and songbirds eat the seeds.

Spruces were the leading source of commercial lumber in Canada (in terms of volume produced) as of 1995, and were commercially important in the U.S. as well, with a 1999 harvest of 34 million board feet (one foot long by one foot wide by one inch thick), valued at over $3 million. Spruce wood is an important pulpwood, and is used for general construction, plywood, interior finishing, boxes, and musical instruments. Spruces are also widely used as Christmas trees, although they are not as popular as firs (Abies species). Spruce resin has been used to produce turpentine.



Several spruce species are widely planted as landscape and ornamental trees, and numerous cultivars have been developed, with variations in needle color and form. Norway sprucehas been widely planted in the U.S. as an ornamental and landscape tree in parks and cemeteries for its graceful, drooping form. A Norway Spruce in the mountains in western Sweden, is part of a clonal clump estimated to be 9,550 years old (see Scientific American podcast).

Spruce needles can be used to produce spruce beer (alcoholic or non-alcoholic), which is high in vitamin C, and the inner bark can be used to make tea. Spruce resins have been used in North American and European traditional medicine to treat coughs, colds, and respiratory ailments, as well as aches and pains.

(Barnes and Wagner 2004, Farrar 1995, Fralish and Franklin 2002, Harlow et al. 1991, Howard 2001, Martin et al. 1951, PFAF 2011)

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Acompocoris alpinus sucks sap of Picea
Other: major host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
superficial hysterothecium of Actidium hysterioides is saprobic on decorticate wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Actinocladium anamorph of Actinocladium rhodosporum is saprobic on rotten wood of Picea

Foodplant / gall
Adelges causes gall of stem of Picea

Foodplant / feeds on
Fundatrix nymph of Adelges abietis feeds on live Picea
Remarks: season: winter

Foodplant / gall
fundatrix nymph of Adelges laricis causes gall of live Picea
Remarks: season: 3

Foodplant / gall
gallicola nymph of Adelges viridis causes gall of live branch tip of Picea
Remarks: season: summer

Plant / hibernates / on
egg of Adelgidae overwinters on Picea

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Agaricus altipes is associated with Picea

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Agaricus subfloccosus is associated with Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Agyrium rufum is saprobic on decorticate wood of Picea
Remarks: season: 4-8

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Aleurodiscus amorphus grows on dying branch (attached) of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Amanita spadicea is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ampedus nigrinus feeds within wood of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ampedus tristis feeds within wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Amylostereum areolatum is saprobic on old stump of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Amylostereum chailletii grows on dead, not decayed trunk of 10-25cm diam of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
resupinate fruitbody of Amylostereum laevigatum grows on dead bark of Picea

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodia serialis grows on dead wood of Picea

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodia sinuosa grows on partially burnt wood of Picea

Plant / associate
Aphidecta obliterata is associated with Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Arhopalus ferus feeds within wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Armillaria gallica is saprobic on dead wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Asemum striatum feeds within dead under bark of Picea

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Atractotomus magnicornis sensu S.& L. sucks sap of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Auricularia auricula-judae is saprobic on wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Baeospora myosura is saprobic on decayed, often partly buried cone of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Basidiodendron pini is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Basidiodendron radians is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Bertia moriformis var. moriformis is saprobic on dead wood of Picea
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Bjerkandera adusta is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Bjerkandera fumosa is saprobic on decayed wood of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Boidinia furfuracea is saprobic on fallen bark of Picea

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus edulis is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus pseudosulphureus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus subappendiculatus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Acladium anamorph of Botryobasidium conspersum is saprobic on dead bark of Picea

Foodplant / spinner
caterpillar of Cacoecimorpha pronubana spins live leaf of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Calocera pallidospathulata is saprobic on decayed wood of Picea
Remarks: season: 1-12

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Calocybe chrysenteron is associated with Picea
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Cantharellus aurora is associated with root of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
basidiome of Cantharellus tubaeformis is associated with Picea

Plant / associate
Cardiastethus fasciiventris is associated with Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Catenularia dematiaceous anamorph of Catenularia piceae is saprobic on dead twig of Picea
Remarks: season: 5

Plant / associate
Cerylon histeroides is associated with under bark of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara cylindrica is saprobic on needle litter of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara cylindrosperma is saprobic on needle litter of Picea
Remarks: season: 10-2

Foodplant / parasite
pycnium of Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri parasitises live needle of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
stipitate, solitary or gregarious apothecium of Ciboria rufofusca is saprobic on fallen, rotting, stromatised cone scale of Picea

Foodplant / sap sucker
Cinara piceae sucks sap of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, solitary apothecium of Cistella acuum is saprobic on fallen, dead needle of Picea
Remarks: season: 9-3
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
subiculate apothecium of Claussenomyces olivaceus is saprobic on resinous exudate of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Clitocybe ditopa is saprobic on dead, rotting litter of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Clitocybe gibba is saprobic on dead, rotting litter of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Clitocybe phaeophthalma is saprobic on dead, rotting litter of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Clitopilus hobsonii is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Clitopilus scyphoides var. intermedius is saprobic on decaying litter of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Collybia erythropus is saprobic on decayed, moss-covered stump of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coniophora arida is saprobic on decayed wood of Picea

Plant / associate
Corticeus linearis is associated with Picea

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
mycelium of Cortinarius betulinus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius brunneus var. brunneus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius collinitus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius croceus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
mycelium of Cortinarius integerrimus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius purpureus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius rubellus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius variicolor is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Crepidotus cesatii is saprobic on decayed, dead twig of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Cryphalus abietis feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Cryphalus piceae feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / parasite
erumpent, effuse, encrusting stroma of Curreya pityophila parasitises branch of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Cylindrobasidium laeve is saprobic on dead, rotting Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Cystolepiota seminuda is associated with Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dacrymyces estonicus is saprobic on decayed wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dacrymyces punctiformis is saprobic on decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dacrymyces variisporus is saprobic on decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dacryobolus karstenii is saprobic on fallen, decayed, decorticate trunk (large) of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Daedaleopsis confragosa is saprobic on dead wood of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on dead cone of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Dictyopolyschema dematiaceous anamorph of Dictyopolyschema pirozynskii is saprobic on dead twig of Picea
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dryocoetes autographus feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dryophilus pusillus feeds within wood of Picea

Foodplant / sap sucker
Elatobium abietinum sucks sap of live, yellowed then shed leaf of Picea
Remarks: season: (1-)3-5(-12)
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Endoperplexa dartmorica is saprobic on decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Entoloma cuneatum is associated with Picea

Plant / associate
larva of Eriozona syrphoides is associated with Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ernobius angusticollis feeds within wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidiopsis grisea is saprobic on dead, decayed bark of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
Exochomus quadripustulatus is associated with Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Fayodia bisphaerigera is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Fomes fomentarius parasitises live, standing trunk of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, +- oblong, conical, immersed, then erumpent, spuriously multilocular stroma of Fusicoccum coelomycetous anamorph of Fusicoccum bacillare is saprobic on dead bark of Picea
Remarks: season: 1-4

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Ganoderma applanatum parasitises live trunk of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum fimbriatum is associated with Picea

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum pectinatum is associated with Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
sometimes effuse Gliocladium anamorph of Gliocladium roseum is saprobic on wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gloeophyllum sepiarium is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed log (large) of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gloeoporus taxicola is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Gomphidius glutinosus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea

Plant / associate
subhypogeous fruitbody of Gymnomyces xanthosporus is associated with Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gymnopilus bellulus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Gyroporus cyanescens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hemimycena lactea is saprobic on dead debris of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hemimycena tortuosa is saprobic on decayed stick of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Heyderia abietis is saprobic on fallen, dead needle of Picea
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
discrete or effuse colony of Hormiactella dematiaceous anamorph of Hormiactella asetosa is saprobic on bark of Picea
Remarks: season: 3-9

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hydnellum caeruleum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hydnellum ferrugineum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hydnum repandum is associated with Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hygrophorus agathosmus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hygrophorus erubescens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hygrophorus piceae is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hygrophorus pustulatus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylastes angustatus feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylastes cunicularius feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylobius abietis feeds within dead stump of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylurgops palliatus feeds within cambium of Picea

Plant / associate
epigeous or hypogeous fruitbody of Hymenogaster citrinus is associated with Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
epigeous or hypogeous fruitbody of Hymenogaster griseus is associated with Picea

Plant / associate
hypogeous fruitbody of Hymenogaster hessei is associated with Picea

Plant / associate
epigeous or hypogeous fruitbody of Hymenogaster olivaceus is associated with Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
hypogeous fruitbody of Hymenogaster vulgaris is associated with Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphoderma pallidum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia arguta is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia breviseta is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia pallidula is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia rimosissima is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia subalutacea is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypholoma lateritium is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypholoma marginatum is saprobic on dead, decayed woodships of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypochniciellum subillaqueatum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypochnicium geogenium is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypochnicium multiforme is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
stroma of Hypocrea strobilina is saprobic on dead, fallen cone of Picea

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe calamistrata is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe oblectabilis is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe obscurobadia is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe pallida is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe pelargonium is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe subcarpta is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe umbratica is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ips cembrae feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Ips typographus feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Ischnoderma benzoinum is saprobic on dead, fallen trunk (large) of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Jaapia ochroleuca is saprobic on decayed, dead wood of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Judolia sexmaculata feeds within exposed root of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
caespitose fruitbody of Kuehneromyces mutabilis is saprobic on decayed, dead stump (large) of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
short-stalked apothecium of Lachnellula resinaria is saprobic on resinous exudate of Picea

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius deterrimus is ectomycorrhizal with root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius helvus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius hepaticus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius hysginus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius rufus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius salmonicolor is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius scrobiculatus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius trivialis is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius turpis is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lepiota perplexa is saprobic on soil of tree of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
Leptoglossus occidentalis sucks sap of unripe seed of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leptosporomyces fuscostratus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed bark of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leptosporomyces galzinii is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
Leptura quadrifasciata feeds within dead wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucoagaricus georginae is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of litter of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucocoprinus brebissonii is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of litter of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucogyrophana mollusca is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
resupinate fruitbody of Leucogyrophana pinastri is saprobic on dead, decayed, brown-rotted wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucogyrophana sororia is saprobic on dead, very decayed, brown rotted bark of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Leucopaxillus paradoxus is associated with Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent through stellately fissured periderm stroma of Cytospora coelomyceteous anamorph of Leucostoma curreyi is saprobic on dead branch of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed, up to 20 per stroma perithecium of Leucostoma kunzei is saprobic on dead branch of Picea
Remarks: season: 12-1
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Lichenopeltella pinophylla is saprobic on dead, fallen needle of Picea
Remarks: season: 2-7

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Luellia recondita is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Lycoperdon umbrinum is associated with Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmiellus ramealis is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed brash of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius alliaceus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius wynnei is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying needle of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Megacollybia platyphylla is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / associate
Melanophila acuminata is associated with in/under scorched bark of Picea

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Melanophyllum haematospermum is associated with Picea

Plant / associate
larva of Meliscaeva cinctella is associated with aphid-infested Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Meripilus giganteus is saprobic on dead trunk (large) of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Merulicium fusisporum is saprobic on dead, piled, lopped, leaf-bearing brash of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Micromphale perforans is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed needle of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mucronella calva is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed log of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena capillaripes is saprobic on dead, decayed needle of litter of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena clavicularis is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying litter of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena haematopus is saprobic on dead stump of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena maculata is saprobic on dead, decaying stump of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena mirata is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying debris of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena pelianthina is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed needle of litter of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena polygramma is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena sanguinolenta is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying, often moss-covered wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
toadstool of Mycena vulgaris is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying needle of litter of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
toadstool of Mycenella margaritispora is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent stroma of Nectria coccinea is saprobic on dead branch of Picea
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
in small groups, erumpent on thin stroma perithecium of Nectria pinea is saprobic on dead branch of Picea
Remarks: season: 9-5
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nectria viridescens is saprobic on bark of Picea
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Geniculosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Nemania serpens is saprobic on dead branch of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Obrium brunneum feeds within wood of Picea

Foodplant / spinner
colonial Oligonychus ununguis spins live, yellowed foliage of Picea
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Oliveonia nodosa is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Otiorhynchus coecus feeds on root of Picea

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pachynematus montanus grazes on needle of Picea

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pachynematus scutellatus grazes on needle of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Panellus mitis is saprobic on dead, fallen brash of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Parapsallus vitellinus sucks sap of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Paullicorticium delicatissimum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Paullicorticium pearsonii is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Paxillus involutus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
Cryptosporiopsis anamorph of Pezicula livida is saprobic on dead twig of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
fruitbody of Phaeolus schweinitzii infects and damages live root of mature tree of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Phaeostalagmus dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeostalagmus tenuissimus is saprobic on litter of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phanerochaete sanguinea is saprobic on dead, decayed, red-stained wood of Picea

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Phellinus ferreus parasitises living trunk of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebia subserialis is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiella grisella is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked, clustered basidiocarp of Phleogena faginea is saprobic on dead wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota flammans is saprobic on dead, decayed stump (large) of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota scamba is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota squarrosa is saprobic on relatively freshly cut, white rotted stump of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
densely scattered, erumpent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis pithya is saprobic on dead bark of Picea

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Phylloporus pelletieri is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea

Foodplant / sap sucker
Pineus pini sucks sap of live Picea

Foodplant / sap sucker
Pineus strobi sucks sap of live Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pityogenes bidentatus feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pityogenes chalcographus feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pityogenes quadridens feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pityophthorus pubescens feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Plesiodema pinetellum sucks sap of Picea
Remarks: season: mid 6-late 7
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pleurocybella porrigens is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pleurotus dryinus is saprobic on live, standing trunk of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pogonocherus fasciculatus feeds within dead branch of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Polygraphus poligraphus feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia balsamea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia caesia is saprobic on dead wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia folliculocystidiata is saprobic on decayed (very) wood of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia fragilis is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia lowei is saprobic on dead wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
dominant Ptychogaster anamorph of Postia ptychogaster is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia rennyi is saprobic on dead, decayed (very) wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia stiptica is saprobic on dead, decayed log (large) cut end of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia tephroleuca is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk (large) of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia wakefieldiae is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pristiphora abietina grazes on needle of Picea

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pristiphora ambigua grazes on needle of Picea

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pristiphora amphibola grazes on needle of Picea

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pristiphora compressa grazes on needle of Picea

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pristiphora saxsenii grazes on needle of Picea

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pristiphora subarctica grazes on needle of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Psathyrella caput-medusae is saprobic on decayed stump (large) of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pseudohydnum gelatinosum is saprobic on dead, decayed (very) stump (large) of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pseudotomentella mucidula is saprobic on dead, decayed (very) wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pterula multifida is saprobic on dead, damp, decayed needle of litter of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Radulomyces confluens is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Ramaria abietina is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed needle of litter of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Repetobasidium vile is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Resinicium bicolor is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhagium bifasciatum feeds within dead wood of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhagium inquisitor feeds within wood of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhagium mordax feeds within wood of Picea

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
subhypogeous fruitbody of Rhizopogon villosulus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, clustered, hypophyllous pycnidium of Rhizosphaera coelomycetous anamorph of Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii is saprobic on dead needle of Picea
Remarks: season: late winter to early spring

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula campestris is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula emetica is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula helodes is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula sardonia is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Serendipita sigmaspora is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Serendipita vermifera is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Serpula himantioides is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Sesquicillium anamorph of Sesquicillium candelabrum is saprobic on dead needle of Picea

Fungus / saprobe
conidioma of Sirococcus coelomycetous anamorph of Sirococcus conigenus is saprobic on fallen cone of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sistotrema diademiferum is saprobic on dead, decayed litter of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sistotrema efibulatum is saprobic on dead, decayed woody of debris of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Skeletocutis amorpha is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (large) of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Skeletocutis nivea is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Spadicoides dematiaceous anamorph of Spadicoides atra is saprobic on dead wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sparassis crispa is saprobic on dead root of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmiella hyalosperma var. hyalosperma is saprobic on dead branch of Picea
Remarks: season: 2-10

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stereum sanguinolentum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sterigmabotrys dematiaceous anamorph of Sterigmatobotrys macrocarpa is saprobic on dead wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Stictoleptura rubra feeds within dead wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Stomiopeltis pinastri is saprobic on dead, fallen, rotting needle of Picea
Remarks: season: 9-3

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, becoming erumpeny conidioma of Strasseria coelomycetous anamorph of Strasseria geniculata is saprobic on dead twig of Picea
Remarks: season: 1-5

Foodplant / saprobe
long-rooted fruitbody of Strobilurus esculentus is saprobic on buried, partially decayed cone of Picea
Remarks: season: spring
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stypella dubia is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stypella vermiformis is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Subulicium lautum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Subulicium minus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Tapinella atrotomentosa is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tetropium castaneum feeds within wood of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tetropium gabrieli feeds within wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Thysanophora dematiaceous anamorph of Thysanophora penicillioides is saprobic on dead, rotting, fallen needle of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tomicus minor feeds within cambium of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tomicus piniperda feeds within cambium of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes versicolor is saprobic on dead wood of Picea
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trechispora hymenocystis is saprobic on decayed (very) wood of Picea
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trechispora minima is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trichaptum abietinum is saprobic on dead, felled, stacked trunk of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Tricholoma aurantium is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Picea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed acervulus of Truncatella coelomycetous anamorph of Truncatella hartigii is saprobic on bark of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Tulasnella hyalina is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Tulasnella interrogans is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Tulasnella pruinosa is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Tylospora asterophora is saprobic on dead, fallen litter of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Vesiculomyces citrinus is saprobic on dead, decayed bark of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Xenosperma ludibundum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Picea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Xylechinus pilosus feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Xyloterus lineatus feeds within cambium of Picea

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Zalerion dematiaceous anamorph of Zalerion arboricola is saprobic on dead wood of Picea

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:505
Specimens with Sequences:690
Specimens with Barcodes:662
Species:53
Species With Barcodes:53
Public Records:404
Public Species:51
Public BINs:0
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Spruce

This article is about the tree. For other uses, see Spruce (disambiguation).

A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea /pˈsə/,[1] a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the earth. Spruces are large trees, from about 20–60 metres (about 60–200 feet) tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form. The needles, or leaves, of spruce trees are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small peg-like structure called a pulvinus. The needles are shed when 4–10 years old, leaving the branches rough with the retained pulvinus (an easy means of distinguishing them from other similar genera, where the branches are fairly smooth).

Spruces are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (moth and butterfly) species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on spruces. They are also used by the larvae of gall adelgids (Adelges species).

In the mountains of western Sweden scientists have found a Norway spruce tree, nicknamed Old Tjikko, which by reproducing through layering has reached an age of 9,550 years and is claimed to be the world's oldest known living tree.[2]

Etymology[edit]

Picea used in coat-of-arms of Kuhmo, Finland

The word spruce entered the English language from the Polish name of Prusy (an historical region, today part of Poland). It became spruce because in Polish, z Prus, sounded like "spruce" in English (transl. "from Prussia") and was a generic term for commodities brought to England by Hanseatic merchants and because the tree was believed to have come from Polish Ducal Prussia.[3]

Classification[edit]

DNA analyses[4][5] have shown that traditional classifications based on the morphology of needle and cone are artificial. A recent study[4] found that P. breweriana had a basal position, followed by P. sitchensis, and the other species were further divided into three clades, suggesting that Picea originated in North America.

Species[edit]

There are thirty-five named species of spruce in the world.

P. glauca sapling, Kluane National Park, Canada
Immature P. mariana cones, Ouimet Canyon, Ontario, Canada
P. pungens cone and foliage

Basal species:

Basal species

  • Clade II (Throughout Asia, a few isolated populations in mountainous areas of Mexico, mostly in mountainous areas.)
  • Clade III (Europe, Asia, and North America, mostly in boreal forests or mountainous areas)

Morphology[edit]

Determining that a tree is a member of a spruce species is not difficult; evergreen needles that are more or less 4-angled, and especially the pulvinus, give it away. But beyond that, determination can become more difficult. Intensive sampling in the Smithers/Hazelton/Houston area of British Columbia showed Douglas (1975),[6] according to Coates et al. (1994),[7] that cone scale morphology was the feature most useful in differentiating species of spruce; the length, width, length: width ratio, the length of free scale (the distance from the imprint of the seed wing to the tip of the scale), and the percentage free scale (length of free scale as a percentage of the total length of the scale) were most useful in this regard. Daubenmire (1974),[8] after range-wide sampling, had already recognized the importance of the 2 latter characters. Taylor (1959)[9] had noted that the most obvious morphological difference between typical Picea glauca and typical P. engelmannii was the cone scale, and Horton (1956,1959)[10][11] found that the most useful diagnostic features of the 2 spruces are in the cone; differences occur in the flower, shoot and needle, “but those in the cone are most easily assessed” (Horton 1959).[11] Coupé et al. (1982)[12] recommended that cone scale characters be based on samples taken from the midsection of each of 10 cones from each of 5 trees in the population of interest.

Without cones, morphological differentiation among spruce species and their hybrids is more difficult. Species classification for seeds collected from spruce stands in which introgressive hybridization between white and Sitka spruces (Picea sitchensis) may have occurred is important for determining appropriate cultural regimes in the nursery. If, for instance, white spruce grown at container nurseries in southwestern British Columbia are not given an extended photoperiod, leader growth ceases early in the first growing season, and seedlings do not reach the minimum height specifications (Arnott 1974, 1979).[13][14] But, if an extended photoperiod is provided for Sitka spruce, seedlings become unacceptably tall by the end of the first growing season (Arnott, unpublished data, cited by Yeh and Arnott 1986).[15] Species classification of seedlots collected in areas where hybridization of white and Sitka spruces has been reported has depended on (i) easily measured cone scale characters of seed trees, especially free scale length, (ii) visual judgements of morphological characters, e.g., growth rhythm, shoot and root weight, and needle serration, or (iii) some combination of (i) and (ii) (Yeh and Arnott 1986).[15] Useful to a degree, these classification procedures have important limitations; genetic composition of the seeds produced by a stand is determined by both the seed trees and the pollen parents, and species classification of hybrid seedlots and estimates of their level of introgression on the basis of seed-tree characteristics can be unreliable when hybrid seedlots vary in their introgressiveness in consequence of spatial and temporal variations in contributions from the pollen parent (Yeh and Arnott 1986).[15] Secondly, morphological characters are markedly influenced by ontogenetic and environmental influences, so that to discern spruce hybrid seedlot composition with accuracy, hybrid seedlots must differ substantially in morphology from both parent species. Yeh and Arnott (1986)[15] pointed out the difficulties of estimating accurately the degree of introgression between white and Sitka spruces; introgression may have occurred at low levels, and/or hybrid seed lots may vary in their degree of introgression in consequence of repeated backcrossing with parental species.

Growth[edit]

Spruce seedlings are most susceptible immediately following germination, and remain highly susceptible through to the following spring. More than half of spruce seedling mortality probably occurs during the first growing season and is also very high during the first winter (Alexander 1987),[16] when seedlings are subjected to freezing damage, frost heaving and erosion, as well as smothering by litter and snow-pressed vegetation. Seedlings that germinate late in the growing season are particularly vulnerable because they are tiny and have not had time to harden off fully.

Mortality rates generally decrease sharply thereafter, but losses often remain high for some years. “Establishment” is a subjective concept based on the idea that once a seedling has successfully reached a certain size, not much is likely to prevent its further development. Criteria vary, of course, but Noble and Ronco (1978),[17] for instance, considered that seedlings 4 to 5 years old, or 8 cm to 10 cm tall, warranted the designation “established”, since only unusual factors such as snow mold, fire, trampling, or predation would then impair regeneration success. Eis (1967)[18] suggested that in dry habitats on either mineral soil or litter seedbeds a 3-year-old seedling may be considered established; in moist habitats, seedlings may need 4 or 5 years to become established on mineral soil, possibly longer on litter seedbeds.

Growth remains very slow for several to many years. Three years after shelterwood felling in subalpine Alberta, dominant regeneration averaged 5.5 cm in height in scarified blocks, and 7.3 cm in non-scarified blocks (Day 1970),[19] possibly reflecting diminished fertility with the removal of the A horizon.

Uses[edit]

Timber[edit]

P. abies wood

Spruce is useful as a building wood, commonly referred to by several different names including North American timber, SPF (spruce, pine, fir) and whitewood (the collective name for spruce wood). Spruce wood is used for many purposes, ranging from general construction work and crates to highly specialised uses in wooden aircraft. The Wright brothers' first aircraft, the Flyer, was built of spruce.[20]

Because this species has no insect or decay resistance qualities after logging, it is generally recommended for construction purposes as indoor use only (ex. indoor drywall framing). Spruce wood, when left outside cannot be expected to last more than 12–18 months depending on the type of climate it is exposed to.

Pulpwood[edit]

Spruce is one of the most important woods for paper uses, as it has long wood fibres which bind together to make strong paper. The fibres are thin walled and collapse to thin bands upon drying. Spruces are commonly used in mechanical pulping as they are easily bleached. Together with northern pines, northern spruces are commonly used to make NBSK. Spruces are cultivated over vast areas as pulpwood.

Food and medicine[edit]

Spruce (Picea mariana) essential oil in a clear glass vial

The fresh shoots of many spruces and pines are a natural source of vitamin C.[21] Captain Cook made alcoholic sugar-based spruce beer during his sea voyages in order to prevent scurvy in his crew.[22][23] The leaves and branches, or the essential oils, can be used to brew spruce beer.

The tips from the needles can be used to make spruce tip syrup [clarification needed]. In survival situations spruce needles can be directly ingested or boiled into a tea.[24] This replaces large amounts of vitamin C. Also, water is stored in a spruce's needles, providing an alternative means of hydration [clarification needed]. Spruce can be used as a preventive measure for scurvy in an environment where meat is the only prominent food source [clarification needed].

Tonewood[edit]

Spruce is the standard material used in soundboards for many musical instruments, including guitars, mandolins, cellos, violins, and the soundboard at the heart of a piano and the harp. Wood used for this purpose is referred to as tonewood.

Spruce, along with cedar, is often used for the soundboard/top of an acoustic guitar. The main types of spruce used for this purpose are Sitka, Engelmann, Adirondack and European spruces.

Other uses[edit]

The resin was used in the manufacture of pitch in the past (before the use of petrochemicals); the scientific name Picea is generally thought to be derived from Latin pix, pitch (though other etymologies have been suggested).

Native Americans in North America use the thin, pliable roots of some species for weaving baskets and for sewing together pieces of birch bark for canoes. See also Kiidk'yaas for an unusual golden Sitka Spruce sacred to the Haida people.

Spruces are also popular ornamental trees in horticulture, admired for their evergreen, symmetrical narrow-conic growth habit. For the same reason, some (particularly Picea abies and P. omorika) are also extensively used as Christmas trees.

Spruce branches are also used at Aintree racecourse, Liverpool, to build several of the fences on the Grand National course. It is also used to make sculptures and Christmas trees.

Diseases[edit]

Sirococcus conigenus blight (Deuteromycotina, Coelomtcetes)[edit]

Sirococcus conigenus causes shoot blight and seedling mortality of conifers in North America, Europe, and North Africa. Under its former name, Ascochyta piniperda, twig blight damage to seedlings of white and red spruces in a nursery near Asheville, North Carolina, were reported by Graves (1914).[25] Hosts include white, black, Engelmann, Norway, and red spruces, although they are not the plants most commonly damaged. Sirococcus blight of spruces in nurseries show up randomly in seedlings to which the fungus was transmitted in infested seed. First-year seedlings are often killed, and larger plants may become too deformed for planting. Outbreaks involving < 30% of spruce seedlings in seedbeds have been traced to seed lots in which only 0.1% to 3% of seeds were infested. Seed infestation has in turn been traced to the colonization of spruce cones by S. conigenus in forests of the western interior. Infection develops readily if conidia are deposited on succulent plant parts that remain wet for at least 24 hours at 10°C to 25°C. Longer periods of wetness favour increasingly severe disease. Twig tips killed during growth the previous year shows a characteristic crook.

Rhizosphaera kalkhoffi needle cast[edit]

Rhizosphaera infects white spruce, blue spruce (Picea pungens), and Norway spruces throughout Ontario, causing severe defoliation and sometimes killing small, stressed trees. White spruce is intermediately susceptible. Dead needles show rows of black fruiting bodies. Infection usually begins on lower branches. On white spruce, infected needles are usually retained on the tree into the following summer. The fungicide Chlorthalonil is registered for controlling this needle cast (Davis 1997).[26]

Valsa kunzei branch and stem canker[edit]

A branch and stem canker associated with the fungus Valsa kunzei Fr. var. picea was reported on white and Norway spruces in Ontario (Jorgensen and Cafley 1961)[27] and Quebec (Ouellette and Bard 1962).[28] In Ontario, only trees of low vigour were affected, but in Quebec vigorous trees were also infected.

Predators[edit]

Small mammals consume conifer seeds, and also eat seedlings. Cage feeding of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi) showed a daily maximum seed consumption of 2000 white spruce seeds and of 1000 seeds of lodgepole pine, with the 2 species of mice consuming equal amounts of seed, but showing a preference for the pine over the spruce (Wagg 1963).[29] The short-tailed meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord) voraciously ate all available white spruce and lodgepole pine seedlings, pulling them out of the ground and holding them between their front feet until the whole seedling had been consumed. Wagg (1963)[29] attributed damage observed to the bark and cambium at ground level of small white spruce seedlings over several seasons to meadow voles.

Once shed, seeds contribute to the diet of small mammals, e.g., deer mice, red-backed voles, mountain voles (Microtus montanus), and chipmunks (Eutamias minimus). The magnitude of the loss is difficult to determine, and studies with and without seed protection have yielded conflicting results. In western Montana, for example, spruce seedling success was little better on protected than on unprotected seed spots (Schopmeyer and Helmers 1947),[30] but in British Columbia spruce regeneration depended on protection from rodents (Smith 1955).[31]

An important albeit indirect biotic constraint on spruce establishment is the depredation of seed by squirrels. As much as 90% of a cone crop has been harvested by red squirrels (Zasada et al. 1978).[32] Deer mice, voles, chipmunks, and shrews can consume large quantities of seed; 1 mouse can eat 2000 seeds per night (Radvanyi 1970b).[33] Repeated applications of half a million seeds/ha failed to produce the 750 trees/ha sought by Northwest Pulp and Power, Ltd., near Hinton, Alberta (Radvanyi 1972),[34] but no doubt left a lot of well-fed small mammals. Foraging by squirrels for winter buds (Rowe 1952)[35] has not been reported in relation to young plantations, but Wagg (1963)[29] noted that at Hinton AB, red squirrels were observed cutting the lateral and terminal twigs and feeding on the vegetative and flower buds of white spruce.

Red squirrels in Alaska have harvested as much as 90% of a cone crop (Zasada et al. 1978);[32] their modus operandi is to cut off great numbers of cones with great expedition early in the fall, and then “spend the rest of the fall shelling out the seeds”. In Manitoba, Rowe (1952)[35] ascribed widespread severing of branch tips 5 cm to 10 cm long on white spruce ranging “from sapling to veteran size” to squirrels foraging for winter buds, cone failure having excluded the more usual food source. The damage has not been reported in relation to small trees, outplants or otherwise.

Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum L.) may damage spruce (Nienstaedt 1957),[36] but prefer red pine (McLeod 1956).[37] Bark-stripping of white spruce by black bear (Euarctos americanus perniger) is locally important in Alaska (Lutz 1951),[38] but the bark of white spruce is not attacked by field mice (Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord) (Littlefield et al. 1946),[39] even in years of heavy infestation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ Swedish Spruce Is World's Oldest Tree: Scientific American Podcast
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas. spruce. Online Etymology Dictionary. Accessed 8 May 2010.
  4. ^ a b Jin-Hua Ran, Xiao-Xin Wei, Xiao-Quan Wang (2006). "Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Picea (Pinaceae): implications for phylogeographical studies using cytoplasmic haplotypes" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41 (2): 405–419. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.039. PMID 16839785. 
  5. ^ Aðalsteinn Sigurgeirsson & Alfred E. Szmidt (1993). "Phylogenetic and biogeographic implications of chloroplast DNA variation in Picea". Nordic Journal of Botany 13 (3): 233–246. doi:10.1111/j.1756-1051.1993.tb00043.x. 
  6. ^ Douglas, G.W. 1975. Spruce (Picea) hybridization in west-central British Columbia. B.C. Min. For., Forest Science, Smithers BC, unpublished report, cited by Coates et al. 1994. (Cited by Coates et al. 1994, orig. not seen)
  7. ^ Coates, K.D.; Haeussler, S.; Lindeburgh, S.; Pojar, R.; Stock, A.J. 1994. Ecology and silviculture of interior spruce in British Columbia. Canada/British Columbia Partnership Agreement For. Resour. Devel., Victoria BC, FRDA Rep. 220. 182 p.
  8. ^ Daubenmire, R. 1974. Taxonomic and ecologic relationships between Picea glauca and Picea engelmannii. Can. J. Bot. 52(7):1545–1560.
  9. ^ Taylor, T.M.C. 1959. The taxonomic relationship between Picea glauca (Moench) Voss and P. engelmannii Parry. Madrono 15(4):111–115. (Cited in Coates et al. 1994).
  10. ^ Horton, K.W. 1956. A taxonomic and ecological study of Picea glauca and Picea engelmannii in North America. Diploma thesis, Oxford Univ., U.K. 103 p.
  11. ^ a b Horton, K.W. 1959. Characteristics of subalpine spruce in Alberta. Can. Dep. Northern Affairs National Resour., For. Branch, For. Res. Div., Ottawa ON, Tech. Note 76. 20 p.
  12. ^ Coupé, R.; Ray, C.A.; Comeau, A.; Ketcheson, M.V.; Annas, R.M. 1982. A guide to some common plants of the Skeena area, British Columbia. B.C. Min. For., Res. Branch, Victoria BC.
  13. ^ Arnott, J.T. 1974. Germination and seedling establishment. p. 55–66 in Cayford, J.H. (Ed.). Direct Seeding Symposium, Timmins ON, Sept. 1973, Can. Dep. Environ., Can. For. Serv., Ottawa ON, Proc., Publ. 1339.
  14. ^ Arnott, J.T. 1979. Effect of light intensity during extended photoperiod on growth of amabalis fir, mountain hemlock, and white and Engelmann spruce seedlings. Can. J. For. Res. 9:82–89.
  15. ^ a b c d Yeh, F.C.; Arnott, J.T. 1986. Electrophoretic and morphological differentiation of Picea sitchensis, Picea glauca, and their hybrids. Can. J. For. Res. 16(4):791–798.
  16. ^ Alexander, R.R. 1987. Ecology, silviculture, and management of the Engelmann spruce–subalpine fir type in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. USDA, For. Serv., Washington DC, Agric. Handb. 659. 144 p.
  17. ^ Noble, D.L.; Ronco, F. 1978. Seedfall and establishment of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir in clearcut openings in Colorado. USDA, For. Serv., Rocky Mountain For. Range Exp. Sta., Res. Pap. RM-200. 12 p.
  18. ^ Eis, S. 1967. Establishment and early development of white spruce in the interior of British Columbia. For. Chron. 43:174–177.
  19. ^ Day, M.W.; Rudolph, V.J. 1970. Development of a white spruce plantation. Michigan State Univ., Agric. Exp. Sta., East Lansing MI, Res. Pap. 111. 4 p.
  20. ^ "Milestones of Flight - 1903 Wright Flyer" - Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum
  21. ^ "Tree Book - Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)". British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations. Retrieved July 29, 2006. 
  22. ^ Crellin, J. K. (2004). A social history of medicines in the twentieth century: to be taken three times a day. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press. p. 39. ISBN 0789018446. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  23. ^ Stubbs, Brett J. (June 2003). "Captain Cook's beer: the antiscorbutic use of malt and beer in late 18th century sea voyages". Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (apjcn.nhri.org.tw) 12 (2): 129–137. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  24. ^ The healing trees / Spruce
  25. ^ Graves, A.H. 1914. Notes on diseases of trees in the southern Appalachians. Phytopath. 4:63–72.
  26. ^ Davis, C. 1997. [September 24] Tree talk. The Sault Star, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Wednesday, September 24, 1997. p. B2.
  27. ^ Jorgensen, E. and Cafley, J.D. 1961. Branch and stem cankers of white and Norway spruces in Ontario. For. Chron. 37(4):394–400.
  28. ^ Ouellette, G.B.; Bard, G. 1962. Observations on a canker and resinosis in white and Norway spruce. Can. Dep. For., For. Ent. Path. Branch, Ottawa ON, Bi-mo. Progr. Rep.18(2):2.
  29. ^ a b c Wagg, J.W.B. 1963. Notes on food habits of small mammals of the white spruce forest. For. Chron. 39(4):436–445.
  30. ^ Schopmeyer, C.S.; Helmers, A.E. 1947. Seeding as a means of reforestation in the northern Rocky Mountain Region. USDA For. Serv., Washington DC, Circular 772. 30 p.
  31. ^ Smith, J.H.G. 1955 [1956 acc to E3999 bib]. Some factors affecting reproduction of Engelmann spruce and alpine fir. British Columbia Dep. Lands For., For. Serv., Victoria BC, Tech. Publ. 43 p. [Coates et al. 1994, Nienstaedt and Teich 1972]
  32. ^ a b Zasada, J.C.; Foote, M.J.; Deneke, F.J.; Parkerson, R.H. 1978. Case history of an excellent white spruce cone and seed crop in interior Alaska: cone and seed production, germination and seedling survival. USDA, For. Serv., Pacific NW For. Range Exp. Sta., Portland OR, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-65. 53 p.
  33. ^ Radvanyi, A. 1970b. Small mammals and regeneration of white spruce forests in western Alberta. Ecology 51(6):1102–1105.
  34. ^ Radvanyi, A. 1972. Small mammals and regeneration of white spruce in western Alberta. p. 21–23 in McMinn, R.G. (Ed.). White Spruce: Ecology of a Northern Resource. Can. Dep. Environ., Can. For. Serv., Edmonton AB, Inf. Rep. NOR-X-40.
  35. ^ a b Rowe, J.S. 1952. Squirrel damage to white spruce. Can. Dep. Resour. Devel., For. Branch, For. Res. Div., Ottawa ON, Silv. Leafl. 61. 2 p.
  36. ^ Nienstaedt, H. 1957. Silvical characteristics of white spruce (Picea glauca). USDA, For. Serv., Lake States For. Exp. Sta., St. Paul MN, Pap. 55. 24 p.
  37. ^ McLeod, J.W. 1956. Plantations of the Acadia Forest Experiment Station. Can. Dep. Northern Affairs National Resour., For. Branch, For. Res. Div., Ottawa ON, Tech. Note 31. 25 p.
  38. ^ Lutz, H.J. 1951. Damage to trees by black bears in Alaska. J. For. 49:522–523.
  39. ^ Littlefield, E.W.; Schoomaker, W.J.; Cook, D.B. 1946. Field mouse damage to coniferous plantations. J. For. 44:745–749.
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