The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, tech. coords. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654.
  • Christenhusz, M. J. M., J. L. Reveal, A. K. Farjon, M. F. Gardner, R. R. Mill & M. W. Chase. 2011. A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa 19: 55–70.
  • Group, C S. (1998). Abies forrestii. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • Harlow, W.M., E.S. Harrar, J.W. Hardin, and F.M. White. 1991. Textbook of Dendrology. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp. 160–179.
  • Martin, A.C., H.S. Zim, and A.L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife & plants a guide to wildlife food habits: the use of trees, shrubs, weeds, and herbs by birds and mammals of the United States. Prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of Interior. New York: Dover. Pp. 292–3.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali (eds). 1980-2005. Fl. Pakistan Univ. of Karachi, Karachi.
  • PFAF. 2011. Abies alba—Mill. Plants For A Future online database. Retrieved 20 November 2011 from
  • The Gardeners Dictionary...Abridged...fourth edition vol. 1. 1754. (28 Jan 1754) (Gard. Dict. Abr. (ed. 4))
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 p. Available online from
  • Wikipedia. 2010. "Fir." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 26 Apr 2010, 18:00 UTC. 7 May 2010.


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