The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- A. Wetmore. 1962. Notes on fossil and subfossil birds. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 145(2):1-17
- Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
- Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
- Johnson, K.P. and S.M. Lanyon 1999. Molecular systematics of the grackles and allies, and the effect of additional sequence (CYT-b and ND2). Auk 116:759-768.
- Lanyon, S.M. 1992. Interspecific Brood Parasitism in Blackbirds (Icterinae): A Phylogenetic Perspective. Science 255:77-79.
- Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org