Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found on outer continental and insular shelves and uppermost slopes (Ref. 247). Probably feeds on bottom invertebrates and fishes. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Taken incidentally with bottom trawls but probably not used (Ref. 247).
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Distribution

Range Description

Australia (from Newcastle in New South Wales to the western Great Australian Bight) and New Zealand (throughout mainland New Zealand and Stewart Is?Snares Island Shelf; Chatham Rise and Chatham Islands; scattered records from Challenger Plateau and Campbell Plateau). Most New Zealand records from Chatham Rise. Depth range 45 to 650 m in Australia and 126 to 1,067 m in New Zealand. Most common at 300 to 600 m in New Zealand.
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Southwest Pacific: confined to temperate waters off southern Australia and New Zealand.
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Australia and New Zealand.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Anal spines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Size

Maximum size: 600 mm TL
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Max. size

60.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 247)); 72 cm TL (female)
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Diagnostic Description

Uniform grey-brown coloration; short, blunt snout; high sail-like dorsal fins with spines and broad apices, first dorsal spine inclined backward; high, thick triangular body with large, rough denticles; circular spiracles; lanceolate upper teeth, lower blade-like teeth in less than 12 rows (Ref. 247).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitat poorly known, but occasionally caught by bottom trawlers. Possibly also occurs over foul ground.

Little is known of the biology of prickly dogfish. They are ovoviviparous, and fecundity is low: one female contained seven embryos and 7 to 8 large ovarian eggs have been recorded in two New Zealand females. Young are born at about 24 cm. Males mature at about 55 to 60 cm and females at or before 67 cm. Maximum size is about 72 cm total length.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 45 - 1070 m (Ref. 26346), usually 350 - 650 m (Ref. 6871)
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Depth range based on 347 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 270 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 126.5 - 1071
  Temperature range (°C): 3.456 - 11.288
  Nitrate (umol/L): 10.874 - 33.775
  Salinity (PPS): 34.305 - 34.991
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.950 - 6.302
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.793 - 2.291
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.363 - 56.260

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 126.5 - 1071

Temperature range (°C): 3.456 - 11.288

Nitrate (umol/L): 10.874 - 33.775

Salinity (PPS): 34.305 - 34.991

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.950 - 6.302

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.793 - 2.291

Silicate (umol/l): 3.363 - 56.260
 
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Depth: 45 - 1070m.
From 45 to 1070 meters.

Habitat: bathydemersal.
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Trophic Strategy

Found on outer continental and insular shelves and uppermost slopes. Probably feeds on bottom invertebrates and fishes.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Ovoviviparous, with 7 young in a litter (Ref. 247). Size at birth about 24 cm (Ref. 6871). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Oxynotus bruniensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 22
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2003

Assessor/s
Francis, M.P. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003)

Reviewer/s
Shark Specialist Group Australia & Oceania Regional Group (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Widespread in southern Australia and throughout New Zealand, but uncommon and only occasionally caught. No information available on catches by commercial vessels, no directed fisheries, but likely to be taken as trawl bycatch. Biology poorly known but fecundity is low (probably 7 to 8 pups/litter).
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Population

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Taken as bycatch in bottom trawl fisheries, but extent of mortality unknown.
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Data deficient (DD)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are currently no conservation measures in place for this species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
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Wikipedia

Prickly dogfish

The prickly dogfish (Oxynotus bruniensis) is a poorly known species of dogfish shark in the family Oxynotidae, inhabiting temperate Australian and New Zealand waters. Reaching a length of 75 cm (30 in), this brown to gray shark has a very thick body with a prominent "humpback" and extremely rough skin. It is further characterized by two enormous, sail-like dorsal fins placed relatively close together. Both dorsal fins have a spine embedded mostly within the fleshy leading portion of the fin; the first dorsal spine is tilted forward.

Found near the sea floor over outer continental and insular shelves and upper slopes, the prickly dogfish is thought to be a slow-moving predator of small benthic organisms. It is aplacental viviparous, with females giving birth to litters of around seven pups. This species is an uncommon bycatch of bottom trawls, though there is insufficient information for the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to assess its conservation status.

Taxonomy[edit]

Australian ichthyologist James Douglas Ogilby originally described the prickly dogfish from a desiccated specimen discovered on a beach on Bruny Island off southeastern Tasmania, Australia. He published his account in an 1893 issue of the scientific journal Records of the Australian Museum and, at the behest of Tasmanian Museum Curator Alex Morton, named it Centrina bruniensis after the type locality.[2] Subsequent authors have synonymized the genus Centrina with Oxynotus.[3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

An uncommon resident of temperate waters, the prickly dogfish occurs off Australia from Crowdy Head in New South Wales, around the southern coast of Tasmania, to as far as Esperance in Western Australia. It also occurs off New Zealand and adjacent islands, and over the submarine Chatham Rise, Challenger Plateau, and Campbell Plateau.[1][4] This species is found close to the bottom over outer continental and insular shelves and upper slopes. It has been reported from a depth range of 45 to 1,067 m (148 to 3,501 ft), but is typically found between 350 and 650 m (1,150 and 2,130 ft) down.[3][4]

Description[edit]

The humped back and high dorsal fins of the prickly dogfish give it a distinctive shape.

With a very stout body and a highly arched back, the prickly dogfish has an unmistakable profile. Its head is slightly flattened, with a short rounded snout. The nostrils are large and closely spaced. The eyes are immediately followed by small round spiracles. The mouth is relatively small and transverse, and almost surrounded by deep furrows coming from the mouth corners. The lips are thick and bear papillae (nipple-like structures).[3][4] There are 12–19 upper and 11–13 lower tooth rows.[4][5] The upper teeth are small with narrow upright cusps, while the lower teeth are large with broad knife-like triangular cusps. There are five pairs of gill slits.[3]

The body is roughly triangular in cross-section. The two dorsal fins are very tall with triangular, sail-like apexes; the anterior portion of each fin is fleshy, in which is embedded a spine with only the tip exposed. The first dorsal fin spine is tilted forward. The origin of the first dorsal fin lies over the gill slits, ahead of the pectoral fins. The second dorsal fin is smaller than the first, and the distance between it and the first dorsal fin is less than the length of its base.[3][5] There are a pair of thick ridges running along the abdomen between the pectoral and pelvic fins, which are smaller than the second dorsal fin. There is no anal fin. The caudal fin is broad and high, with a ventral notch near the tip of the upper lobe. The skin is extremely rough due to a covering of large dermal denticles with narrow, knife-like crowns. The coloration is plain brown to gray, becoming translucent at the trailing margins of the pectoral and pelvic fins. This species grows to at least 75 cm (30 in) long, and may reach 91 cm (36 in).[3][4]

Biology and ecology[edit]

The unusual shape and sizable, oily liver of the prickly dogfish suggests it is a slow swimmer that can hover over the sea floor with minimal effort. It probably hunts for small, bottom-dwelling invertebrates and fishes, perhaps facilitated by its large nostrils and labial papillae.[3] This species is aplacental viviparous; females have been recorded containing seven or eight mature eggs in their ovaries, and one was gestating seven embryos. Newborns measure about 24 cm (9.4 in) long. Males and females attain sexual maturity around 55–60 cm (22–24 in) and ≤67 cm (26 in) long, respectively.[1] A known parasite of the prickly dogfish is the monogenean Asthenocotyle taranakiensis.[6]

Human interactions[edit]

The prickly dogfish is occasionally caught incidentally by bottom trawlers, and probably discarded.[3] Some sources indicate the numbers caught have declined from historical levels, but the International Union for Conservation of Nature lacks sufficient data to assess this species beyond Data Deficient.[1][4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Francis, M.P. (2003). "Oxynotus bruniensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  2. ^ Ogilby, J.D. (1893). "Description of a new shark from the Tasmanian coast". Records of the Australian Museum 2 (5): 62–63. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.2.1893.1194. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization. p. 125. ISBN 92-5-101384-5. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens (2009). Sharks and Rays of Australia (second ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 97–98. ISBN 0-674-03411-2. 
  5. ^ a b Yano, K. and K. Matsuura (2002). "A review of the genus Oxynotus (Squaliformes, Oxynotidae)". Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Series A 28 (2): 109–117. 
  6. ^ Beverley-Burton, M., G.J. Klassen and R.J.G. Lester (April 1987). "Generic diagnosis of Asthenocotyle Robinson, 1961 (Monogenea: Microbothriidae) and description of Asthenocotyle taranakiensis new species from Oxynotus bruniensis (Oxynotidae) taken in New Zealand waters". International Journal for Parasitology 17 (4): 965–969. doi:10.1016/0020-7519(87)90016-6. 
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