Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:93Public Records:40
Specimens with Sequences:74Public Species:11
Specimens with Barcodes:70Public BINs:31
Species:20         
Species With Barcodes:15         
          
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Barcode data: Eleutherodactylus cf. auriculatus 4 AR-2009

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ATCTTTGGTGCTTGGGCCGGAATAATCGGAACTGCCCTA---AGCCTACTTATTCGAGCAGAACTAAGTCAACCAGGCTCCTTACTGGGAGAT---GACCAAATTTACAATGTCGTAGTAACCGCTCACGCTTTCGTTATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCTGTAATAATCGGAGGCTTCGGTAATTGATTAGTCCCATTAATG---CTAGGTGCTCCTGATATAGCTTTTCCCCGAATAAACAATATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTACCCCCATCATTCTTCCACCTCTTAGCCTCCACTTGAACTGAAGCTGGTGCTGGCACTGGGTGAACAGTTTACCCCCCCTTAGCCGCCAACCTCGCACACTCAGGCCCATCTGTTGACATA---ACTATCTTCTCATTACATCTTGCAGGAGCATCCTCAATTATAGGTGCCATTAATTTTATCACTACTATTATTAACATAAAACCCCCCTCATTTTCTCAGTATCAAACCCCCTTATTTGTTTGATCCGTACTAATTACCGCTGTTCTTCTTCTTCTCTCCCTGCCTGTTTTAGCCGCA---GGAATTACTATGCTTTTAACAGACCGCAACTTAAACACAACCTTTTTTGACCCTGCAGGGGGAGGGGACCCAATCTTATACCAACACCTGTTTTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCA
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eleutherodactylus cf. auriculatus 4 AR-2009

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Eleutherodactylus cf. auriculatus 2 AR-2009

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

GCCGGAATAATTGGAACTGCTCTA---AGCCTACTCATTCGAGCAGAGCTGAGTCAACCTGGCTCCTTACTTGGAGAT---GACCAAATTTACAATGTCGTAGTAACCGCTCACGCTTTTGTTATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCTGTGATAATCGGAGGTTTCGGTAATTGACTAGTTCCATTAATG---CTGGGTGCCCCTGACATAGCTTTCCCTCGAATGAACAATATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTACCACCTTCATTTTTCCACCTCTTAGCCTCCACTTGAACTGAAGCTGGCGCTGGTACTGGTTGAACAGTTTACCCACCATTAGCTGCCAACCTAGCACACTCAGGCCCATCCGTTGACATA---ACCATTTTTTCATTACATCTTGCAGGAGCATCCTCAATCATAGGTGCCATTAATTTTATTACTACCATTATCAACATAAAACCTCCCTCATTTTCGCAATATCAAACCCCTCTTTTTGTTTGATCAGTACTAATTACCGCCATCCTTCTTCTTCTCTCCCTACCTGTTTTAGCCGCA---GGAATTACTATACTCTTAACAGACCGCAACTTAAATACAACCTTTTTCGACCCTGCAGGCGGCGGGGATCCAATCCTATATCAACACCTA
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eleutherodactylus cf. auriculatus 2 AR-2009

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Eleutherodactylus cf. auriculatus 3 AR-2009

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACCCTATACTTAATCTTTGGCGCTTGAGCTGGAATAATTGGAACTGCCTTA---AGCCTACTTATTCGAGCAGAACTAAGTCAACCAGGCTCCTTACTGGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTACAATGTTGTAGTGACCGCTCACGCTTTCGTTATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCTGTAATAATCGGCGGTTTTGGTAATTGACTAGTCCCCTTAATG---CTAGGTGCCCCTGACATAGCTTTCCCCCGAATAAATAATATAAGCTTCTGGCTCTTACCTCCTTCATTTTTCCACCTTTTAGCCTCTACCTGAACCGAAGCCGGTGCCGGCACCGGTTGAACAGTCTATCCCCCCTTAGCTGCCAACCTCGCACACTCTGGACCATCCGTTGATATG---ACTATTTTCTCTTTACATCTTGCCGGAGCATCATCAATTATGGGCGCTATTAACTTTATTACTACTATTATTAACATAAAACCTCCCTCATTCTCTCAGTACCAAACCCCCCTATTTGTCTGATCCGTTTTAATTACTGCTGTCCTTCTTCTTCTATCTTTACCCGTCCTGGCTGCA---GGAATTACTATACTCTTAACAGACCGCAACTTAAATACAACTTTTTTTGACCCCGCGGGGGGAGGAGACCCAATC
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eleutherodactylus cf. auriculatus 3 AR-2009

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Eleutherodactylus cf. auriculatus 1 AR-2009

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ATTTTTGGCGCTTGGGCCGGAATAATCGGAACCGCTCTA---AGCCTTCTTATTCGGGCAGAACTGAGCCAGCCTGGCTCACTGCTAGGAGAT---GACCAAATCTATAATGTTGTAGTAACCGCGCACGCCTTTGTTATAATCTTCTTCATAGTAATGCCCGTAATGATTGGGGGTTTTGGTAATTGACTCGTTCCGTTAATG---CTGGGCGCCCCTGATATAGCCTTCCCCCGAATAAACAACATAAGTTTCTGACTCCTACCACCCTCATTTTTTCACCTTTTAGCCTCCACCTGAACTGAGGCTGGTGCAGGAACTGGCTGAACAGTCTACCCTCCCCTAGCTGCTAACCTGGCACACTCAGGCCCATCAGTTGACATG---ACTATTTTCTCATTACATCTTGCAGGGGCATCCTCAATTATAGGTGCTATTAACTTTATTACCACTATTATTAACATAAAACCTCCCTCATTCTCTCAATACCAAACCCCTTTATTTGTGTGATCTGTTCTAATTACGGCAGTACTCCTCCTTCTCTCCTTACCTGTCCTAGCCGCA---GGAATTACAATGCTCCTAACAGACCGCAACTTAAATACAACCTTTTTTGACCCTGCAGGAGGGGGAGACCCAATCTTGTACCAGCACCTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCAC
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eleutherodactylus cf. auriculatus 1 AR-2009

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Eleutherodactylus

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Wikipedia

Coquí

Shared by El Cloquido

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Coquí is the common name for several species of small frogs in the Eleutherodactylus genus that are endemic to Puerto Rico. They are onomatopoeically named for the very loud mating call which the males of two species, the common coquí and the mountain coquí, make at night. The coquí is one of the most common frogs in Puerto Rico with more than 16 different species found within its territory, including 13 in the Caribbean National Forest. Other species of this genus can be found in the rest of the Caribbean and elsewhere in the Neotropics, in Central and South America. All species of Eleutherodactylus are characterized by direct development in which eggs hatch into small frogs, the tadpole stage being passed in the egg itself.

Taxonomy[edit]

Coquíes belong to the Eleutherodactylus genus which in Greek means free toes. Eleutherodactylus contains over 700 different species that naturally occur in the southern United States, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. Coquíes additionally have become established in Hawaii, where they are considered an invasive species.

Seventeen described species of coquíes inhabit Puerto Rico. In 2007, a new species, the Coquí Llanero, was officially named Eleutherodactylus juanariveroi.[1]

Role in the ecosystem[edit]

The various species of coquí control the populations of herbivorous insect species in their local environments.

Population decline[edit]

The decline of coquí populations has accelerated since the introduction of the Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis fungus.[2] This fungus has been extremely effective against many amphibians because it can cause skin infection. The coquíes found in El Yunque are resistant to the B. dendrobatidis fungus at the expense of their size, which reduces the aptitude to survive in the wilderness (Burrowes, Longo and Rodríguez 2007). Individuals that carry this fungus resistance are more often found where the B. dendrobatidis fungus is concentrated. Although the fungus prefers humid environments, infection is more frequent in drier climates because coquíes tend to cluster in humid sub-areas within this drier climate (Burrowes, Longo and Rodriguez 2007).

Geographic distribution[edit]

The current record from the USGS[3] establishes that it has been identified in Puerto Rico, Hawaii, St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, and Florida.

The mating call of the coquí is considered symbolic of Puerto Rico.

At one point Louisiana was identified as another location but according to the USGS the Louisiana record was erroneous and was based on two pet coquíes, both males, kept in a greenhouse for two to three years until killed off by a winter freeze.[3]

Coquíes have become established in the Big Island of Hawai'i, where they are considered an invasive species. Coquí population density in Hawaii can reach 20,000 animals per acre and affects 50,000 acres (20,000 ha). Eradication campaigns are underway on Hawaiʻi and Maui.[4][5][6] Some groups favor its adoption.[7]

Eradication techniques include hand capture and spraying with a 12% solution of citric acid along with a certification program for nurseries to prevent them from acting as centers of contagion.[4]

In popular culture[edit]

The sound of a coquí can be heard distinctly at the beginning and end of the songs "Acércate" and "Ángel Caído".[8]

In the first movement of The Mars Volta's song "Miranda That Ghost Just Isn't Holy Anymore", 4 minutes of coquí frogs can be heard singing (credited as "The Coquí of Puerto Rico" on the album sleeve).[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ríos-López, N. and R. Thomas. 2007. A new species of palustrine Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Puerto Rico. Zootaxa 1512: 51–64
  2. ^ Burrowes, Patricia A. and Ana V. Longo. Persistence with Chytridiomycosis Does Not Assure Survival of Direct-developing Frogs. EcoHealth June 2010: p.185-195. ProQuest. Web. 5 June 2011.
  3. ^ a b "Coqui (Eleutherodactylus coqui) - FactSheet". Nas.er.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2012-06-13. 
  4. ^ a b Shafer, Jacob (November 18, 2010). "On the Front Lines of the Coqui Battle With Maui Invasive Species Committee". Retrieved November 2010. 
  5. ^ "Control of Coqui Frog in Hawai'i". Ctahr.hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-13. 
  6. ^ Philip A. Thomas (2009-01-27). "Coqui & greenhouse frogs: alien Caribbean frogs in Hawaii". Hear.org. Retrieved 2012-06-13. 
  7. ^ "Hawaiian Coqui, Facts about the coqui in Hawai'i". Hawaiiancoqui.org. Retrieved 2012-06-13. 
  8. ^ Real (CD liner). Ivy Queen. Perfect Image Records Inc. Manufactured and distributed by Universal Music Latino, 420 Lincoln Rd. Suite 200, Miami Beach, FL 33139, through Universal Music & Video Distribution. 2004. 809507157-2. 
  9. ^ Frances The Mute (CD Liner). The Mars Volta. Universal Records, Gold Standard Laboratories, and Strummer Recordings. 2005. B0004129-02, B0004129-02, B0004129-02. 
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Eleutherodactylus

Cliff Chirping Frog, Eleutherodactylus marnockii

Eleutherodactylus is a genus of frogs in the Eleutherodactylidae family.[1] Many of the 185 species of the genus are commonly known as "rain frogs" or "robber frogs", due to their sharp, high-pitched, insect-like calls.[2]

The best-known species is the common coquí (E. coqui), which is both a national symbol of Puerto Rico and a notorious invasive species in Hawaii. Two Eleutherodactylus species, E. limbatus and E. iberia, belong to the smallest known frogs, measuring only 8.5 mm in length[3] (only slightly larger than Paedophryne amauensis, which measures around 7.7 mm).[4]

Etymology[edit]

The name "Eleutherodactylus" is derived from the Greek words for ‘free-toed’, composed of the Ancient Greek eleutheros (ἐλεύθερος, ‘free, unbound’) and dactylos (δάκτυλος, ‘finger, toe’).[5] Most species are small, slender, and cryptically colored, with three to five free toes. A few, such as the web-footed coquí (E. karlschmidti) of Puerto Rico, do have completely webbed feet.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Species of Eleutherodactylus are found throughout the Neotropics, including the Southern United States, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. Additionally, the common coquí (E. coqui) has been introduced to several islands in the Hawaiian archipelago, as well as elsewhere in the Pacific.[6]

They can be terrestrial, arboreal, or aquatic, typically living in forests or riparian areas, and feeding primarily upon arthropods. Many Eleutherodactylus species have highly restricted ranges and are found on only one island or in one or a few localities. Even some of these restricted species can occur at very high densities.

Reproduction and development[edit]

All species of Eleutherodactylus are characterized by direct development, in which eggs hatch directly into small frogs, completely bypassing the tadpole stage. This adaptation may be largely responsible for their ecological and evolutionary success. Most species are characterized by parental behaviors, such as egg-guarding by either the male or female parent. In some cases, even young froglets are attended by parents. Another extinct Puerto Rican species, the golden coquí (E. jasperi), gave birth to live young. Many species (for example, Cook's robber frog, E. cooki), also of Puerto Rico, exhibit sexual dimorphism in size and color.

Phylogenetics[edit]

The basis of forming this genus has been morphological, but sequence comparisons of protein-encoding DNA, mitochondrial DNA, and ribosomal RNA have shown geographic range is a much more consistent predictor of cladistics for this group of frogs. The climbing habits of many species have evolved independently. All true members of the genus have been clustered into subgenera, but many less-related species require more genetic data before they are to be officially classified elsewhere. The theory that the eleutherodactyline colonization of Central America and the Caribbean from their origins in South America occurred during the Cretaceous has fallen out of favor. The fossil record, combined with molecular clock analyses, indicate the subgenera were probably founded by small groups of individuals by flotsam dispersal during the Eocene or Oligocene epochs. Land bridges would have been limited to facilitating dispersal between West Indian islands, however, the Oligocene division of Hispaniola and Cuba resulted in further speciation. The distribution of the subgenus Syrrhopus is most likely due to a secondary dispersal to Central America from the Greater Antilles during the Miocene. The formation of the Panama Isthmus during the Pliocene has caused some intercontinental distribution among the clades, although only 20 "South American frogs" have ever made it northwards after the original colonization.[7] Sensu stricto, however, it should exclude clades with distributions south of the Panama Canal.[7]

Species[edit]

West Indian (subgenus Eleutherodactylus)[edit]

West Indian (subgenus Euhyas)[edit]

Hispaniolan (subgenus Pelorius)[edit]

North/Central American and Cuban (subgenus Syrrhopus)[edit]

Central American clade (genus/subgenus Craugastor)[edit]

Undefined clade[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hedges, S. B., W. E. Duellman, and M. P. Heinicke . 2008. New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation. Zootaxa 1737: 1-182.
  2. ^ "Amphibian Species of the World". Retrieved 2011-11-23. 
  3. ^ The Center for Reptile and Amphibian Research: Interesting Facts About Amphibians
  4. ^ Rittmeyer, E. N.; Allison, A.; Gründler, M. C.; Thompson, D. K.; Austin, C. C. (2012). "Ecological guild evolution and the discovery of the world's smallest vertebrate". PLoS ONE 7 (1): e29797. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029797. PMC 3256195. PMID 22253785.  edit
  5. ^ Dodd, C. Kenneth (2013). Frogs of the United States and Canada 1. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-4214-0633-6. 
  6. ^ > "Eleutherodactylus coqui (amphibian) at the Global Invasive Species Database". Retrieved 2007-06-06. 
  7. ^ a b Heinicke, M.P., W.E. Duellman & S.B. Hedges (2007). "Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal". Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104 (24): 10092–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611051104. PMC 1891260. PMID 17548823. 
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