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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 1 specimen in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 7.710 - 7.710
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.075 - 1.075
  Salinity (PPS): 8.907 - 8.907
  Oxygen (ml/l): 8.179 - 8.179
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.270 - 0.270
  Silicate (umol/l): 11.140 - 11.140
 
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:240Public Records:113
Specimens with Sequences:175Public Species:5
Specimens with Barcodes:170Public BINs:14
Species:8         
Species With Barcodes:7         
          
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Troglodytes

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Wikipedia

Troglodytes (wren)

Troglodytes[1] is a genus of small passerine birds in the wren family. These wrens are around 11–13 centimetres (4.3–5.1 in) long. They are brownish above and somewhat paler below, with strong legs. Their short rounded wings and frequently cocked tail have a dark barred pattern. The flight is direct and buzzing.

Troglodytes wrens are mostly found in somewhat cooler habitats than most of their relatives. Most of the species are found in the mountains from Mexico to northern South America. Five species are found in temperate latitudes: The House Wren occurs widely in both tropical and temperate lowlands, but is frequently split into several species. Until recently, the hardy Winter Wren was believed to have a wide distribution in North America, Europe, Asia and North Africa, but it has recently been split into three species, of which the Eurasian Wren is the only wren of any genus found outside the New World. The Cobb's Wren of the Falkland Islands is another species which tolerates harsh conditions well.

Like other wrens, they are elusive as they hunt for small insects and spiders, but they readily reveal their positions through their loud songs.

These are territorial birds, but the tiny Winter Wren will roost communally in a cavity in cold weather to help conserve heat.

Systematics and species[edit]

The closest living relatives of this genus are possibly the Timberline Wren and the Cistothorus species rather than the Henicorhina wood-wrens as is sometimes proposed.[2]

A number of the Troglodytes species, such as the Clarion Wren, were formerly considered subspecies of the House Wren, and it has been argued that at least the tropical forms of the House Wren should be further split as the Southern House Wren, Troglodytes musculus.[3] The Socorro Wren, in older times placed into Thryomanes (Bewick's Wren), is actually a close relative of the House Wren complex, as indicated by "manners, song, plumage, etc"[4] and by biogeography and mtDNA NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 sequence analysis.[2]

The Winter Wren is less closely related to the other members of the genus, and is occasionally split as the monotypic genus Nannus[citation needed]. It might actually be closely related to Cistothorus,[2] but again, the molecular data is insufficient to properly resolve this issue.

Species[edit]

In early 2010, the American Ornithologist's Union voted to split the species formerly known as Winter Wren into three separate species, as follows[5][6]

Even with the help of the most recent molecular data[2] the relationships of the species could not be fully resolved however. There appear to be 2 clades, one comprising the house wren group and another containing Central and South American species. The relationships of the Rufous-browed and Brown-throated Wrens are indeterminable with the present molecular data; they appear fairly basal and the former might be closer to the house wren group than the latter. The Santa Marta Wren is quite enigmatic and little-studied.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Etymology: Ancient Greek τρωγλοδύτες "cave-dwellers" (compare troglodyte), from trogle (τρώγλη) "hole" + dyein (δυειν) "to enter". In reference to the tendency of these wrens to enter small crevices as they search for food.
  2. ^ a b c d Martínez Gómez et al. (2005)
  3. ^ noted in Howell & Webb (1995)
  4. ^ Howell & Webb (1995)
  5. ^ http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/species.jsp?lang=EN&avibaseid=11A4055E89689538&sec=summary&ssver=1
  6. ^ http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1525/auk.2010.127.3.726?journalCode=tauk

References[edit]

  • ffrench, Richard; O'Neill, John Patton & Eckelberry, Don R. (1991): A guide to the birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd edition). Comstock Publishing, Ithaca, N.Y. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2
  • Hilty, Steven L. (2003): Birds of Venezuela. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5
  • Howell, Steven N.G. & Webb, Sophie (1995): A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York. ISBN 0-19-854012-4
  • Martínez Gómez, Juan E.; Barber, Bruian R. & Peterson, A. Townsend (2005): Phylogenetic position and generic placement of the Socorro Wren (Thryomanes sissonii). The Auk 122 (1): 50–56. [English with Spanish abstract] doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2005)122[0050:PPAGPO]2.0.CO;2 PDF fulltext
  • National Geographic Society (2002): Field Guide to the Birds of North America. National Geographic, Washington DC. ISBN 0-7922-6877-6
  • Rice, Peterson and Escalona-Segura: Phylogenetic patterns in montane Troglodytes wrens
  • Stiles, F. Gary & Skutch, Alexander Frank (1989): A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Comistock, Ithaca. ISBN 0-8014-9600-4
  • Svensson, Lars; Zetterström, Dan; Mullarney, Killian & Grant, P. J. (1999): Collins bird guide. Harper & Collins, London. ISBN 0-00-219728-6
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