Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.
Depth range (m): 0 - 0
Temperature range (°C): 7.710 - 7.710
Nitrate (umol/L): 1.075 - 1.075
Salinity (PPS): 8.907 - 8.907
Oxygen (ml/l): 8.179 - 8.179
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.270 - 0.270
Silicate (umol/l): 11.140 - 11.140
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||213||Public Records:||113|
|Specimens with Sequences:||170||Public Species:||5|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||165||Public BINs:||14|
|Species With Barcodes:||7|
Locations of barcode samples
Troglodytes is a genus of small passerine birds in the wren family. These wrens are around 11–13 centimetres (4.3–5.1 in) long. They are brownish above and somewhat paler below, with strong legs. Their short rounded wings and frequently cocked tail have a dark barred pattern. The flight is direct and buzzing.
Troglodytes wrens are mostly found in somewhat cooler habitats than most of their relatives. Most of the species are found in the mountains from Mexico to northern South America. Five species are found in temperate latitudes: The House Wren occurs widely in both tropical and temperate lowlands, but is frequently split into several species. Until recently, the hardy Winter Wren was believed to have a wide distribution in North America, Europe and Asia, but it has recently been split into three species, of which the Eurasian Wren is the only wren of any genus found outside the New World. The Cobb's Wren of the Falkland Islands is another species which tolerates harsh conditions well.
These are territorial birds, but the tiny Winter Wren will roost communally in a cavity in cold weather to help conserve heat.
Systematics and species 
A number of the Troglodytes species, such as the Clarion Wren, were formerly considered subspecies of the House Wren, and it has been argued that at least the tropical forms of the House Wren should be further split as the Southern House Wren, Troglodytes musculus. The Socorro Wren, in older times placed into Thryomanes (Bewick's Wren), is actually a close relative of the House Wren complex, as indicated by "manners, song, plumage, etc" and by biogeography and mtDNA NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 sequence analysis.
The Winter Wren is less closely related to the other members of the genus, and is occasionally split as the monotypic genus Nannus. It might actually be closely related to Cistothorus, but again, the molecular data is insufficient to properly resolve this issue.
- House Wren, Troglodytes aedon – taxonomy needs revision
- Northern House Wren, Troglodytes (aedon) aedon group
- Brown-throated Wren, Troglodytes (aedon) brunneicollis group
- Southern House Wren, Troglodytes (aedon) musculus group
- Cozumel Wren, Troglodytes (aedon) beani
- Guadeloupe Wren, Troglodytes aedon guadeloupensis – taxonomic status unresolved; possibly extinct (late 20th century)
- Martinique Wren, Troglodytes aedon martinicensis – taxonomic status unresolved; possibly extinct (c.1890)
- Clarion Wren, Troglodytes tanneri – formerly included in T. aedon
- Socorro Wren, Troglodytes sissonii – formerly included in T. aedon
- Cobb's Wren, Troglodytes cobbi – formerly included in T. aedon
- Rufous-browed Wren, Troglodytes rufociliatus
- Tepui Wren, Troglodytes rufulus
- Mountain Wren, Troglodytes solstitialis
- Ochraceous Wren, Troglodytes ochraceus
- Santa Marta Wren, Troglodytes monticola
- Eastern Winter Wren, Troglodytes hiemalis
- Pacific Wren, Troglodytes pacificus
- Pacific Wren, Troglodytes pacificus pacificus
- Kiska Wren, Troglodytes pacificus kiskensis
- Aleutian Wren, Troglodytes pacificus meligerus
- Troglodytes pacificus ochroleucus
- Tanaga Wren, Troglodytes pacificus tanagensis
- Seguam Winter Wren, Troglodytes pacificus seguamensis
- Stevenson's Winter Wren, Troglodytes pacificus stevensoni
- Unalaska Wren, Troglodytes pacificus petrophilus
- Semidi Wren, Troglodytes pacificus semidiensis
- Alaska Wren, Troglodytes pacificus alascensis
- Troglodytes pacificus muiri
- Troglodytes pacificus obscurior
- Troglodytes pacificus salebrosus
- Kodiak Wren, Troglodytes pacificus helleri
- Eurasian Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes
- Northern Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes troglodytes
- Icelandic Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes islandicus
- Corsican Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes koenigi
- British Isles Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes indigenus
- Fair Isle Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes fridariensis
- St. Kilda Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes hirtensis
- Hebridian Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes hebridensis
- Shetland Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes zetlandicus
- Faeroes Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes borealis
- West Mediterranean Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes kabylorum
- Libyan Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes juniperi
- East Mediterranean Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes cypriotes
- Caucasian Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes hyrcanus
- Daito Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes orii – validity doubtful; extinct (c.1940)
- Troglodytes troglodytes dauricus
- Troglodytes troglodytes idius
- Troglodytes troglodytes kurilensis
- Magrath's Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes magrathi
- Troglodytes troglodytes mosukei
- Caucasian Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes neglectus
- Troglodytes troglodytes szetschuanus
- Troglodytes troglodytes talifuensis
- Sooty Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes fumigatus
- Nepal Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes nipalensis
- Troglodytes troglodytes pallescens
- Troglodytes troglodytes zagrossiensis
- Troglodytes troglodytes tianschanicus
- Troglodytes troglodytes ogawae
- Troglodytes troglodytes taivanus
- Troglodytes troglodytes subpallidus
Even with the help of the most recent molecular data the relationships of the species could not be fully resolved however. There appear to be 2 clades, one comprising the house wren group and another containing Central and South American species. The relationships of the Rufous-browed and Brown-throated Wrens are indeterminable with the present molecular data; they appear fairly basal and the former might be closer to the house wren group than the latter. The Santa Marta Wren is quite enigmatic and little-studied.
- Etymology: Ancient Greek τρωγλοδύτες "cave-dwellers" (compare troglodyte), from trogle (τρώγλη) "hole" + dyein (δυειν) "to enter". In reference to the tendency of these wrens to enter small crevices as they search for food.
- Martínez Gómez et al. (2005)
- noted in Howell & Webb (1995)
- Howell & Webb (1995)
- ffrench, Richard; O'Neill, John Patton & Eckelberry, Don R. (1991): A guide to the birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd edition). Comstock Publishing, Ithaca, N.Y. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2
- Hilty, Steven L. (2003): Birds of Venezuela. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5
- Howell, Steven N.G. & Webb, Sophie (1995): A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York. ISBN 0-19-854012-4
- Martínez Gómez, Juan E.; Barber, Bruian R. & Peterson, A. Townsend (2005): Phylogenetic position and generic placement of the Socorro Wren (Thryomanes sissonii). The Auk 122 (1): 50–56. [English with Spanish abstract] doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2005)122[0050:PPAGPO]2.0.CO;2 PDF fulltext
- National Geographic Society (2002): Field Guide to the Birds of North America. National Geographic, Washington DC. ISBN 0-7922-6877-6
- Rice, Peterson and Escalona-Segura: Phylogenetic patterns in montane Troglodytes wrens
- Stiles, F. Gary & Skutch, Alexander Frank (1989): A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Comistock, Ithaca. ISBN 0-8014-9600-4
- Svensson, Lars; Zetterström, Dan; Mullarney, Killian & Grant, P. J. (1999): Collins bird guide. Harper & Collins, London. ISBN 0-00-219728-6
Range and habitat
This species is fairly common, common in some areas, in oak and pine-oak woods and clearings in the highlands of Mexico (1600 m to 3000 m elevation) from Oaxaca north to Coahuila and Sonora and in neighboring southeastern Arizona.
Its appearance is very similar to the House Wren's, 11.5 to 12.5 cm (4.5 to 4.7 inches) long, with brown head and upperparts, barred with black on the wings and narrow tail. It has a stronger buff eyebrow stripe and black eyestripe than the House Wren. Below it is buffy, grayer (more like the House Wren) in subspecies cahooni of northern Mexico and Arizona, more ochre in the other subspecies. The flanks and undertail coverts have dark brown bars.
The voice is also similar to the House Wren's. The song consists of "scratchy, chortling, warbling, and trilling" sounds, and there are scolding calls starting with a ch sound, as well as a mewing call. One sound not in the House Wren's repertoire is "a bright springy trill, tseeeurr or ssreeuur, suggesting Rock Wren."
Some authorities do not list the Brown-throated Wren as a separate species. An argument for lumping it with the House Wren is that House Wrens in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico have characters intermediate between the two species.
Here the Brown-throated Wren is considered a separate species following the Handbook of the Birds of the World. A 2005 DNA study corroborated this split by suggesting that the Brown-throated Wren was not only a separate species but likely not the House Wren's closest relative. For further information, see Troglodytes.
As a separate species, it comprises five subspecies: brunneicollis, cahooni, compositus, nitidus, and vorhiesi.
- Lepage, Denis (2003–2007), Avibase - the world bird database, http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?pg=summary&lang=EN&id=2D55E32F42539227&ts=1190595344906, retrieved Sept. 22, 2007
- Howell, Steve N. G.; Webb, Sophie (1995), A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America, Oxford University Press, pp. 568, ISBN 0-19-854012-4
- Howell and Webb, Birds of Mexico, p. 567 (House Wren)
- American Ornithologists' Union (1998–2006), Check-list of North American Birds, http://www.aou.org/checklist/index.php3, retrieved Sept. 24, 2007
- Clements, James F. (2007), The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Sixth ed.), Cornell University Press, ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9, according to Lepage, op. cit.
- Martínez Gómez, Juan E.; Barber, Brian R.; Peterson, A. Townsend (2005), "Phylogenetic position and generic placement of the Socorro Wren (Thryomanes sissonii)" (pdf), Auk 122 (1): 50–56., doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2005)122[0050:PPAGPO]2.0.CO;2, ISSN 0004-8038, http://www.specifysoftware.org/Informatics/bios/biostownpeterson/MBP_A_2005.pdf
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