Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 13 specimens in 6 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 7.705 - 11.811
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.335 - 6.342
  Salinity (PPS): 6.218 - 34.953
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.391 - 8.325
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.243 - 0.377
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.584 - 10.160

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 7.705 - 11.811

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.335 - 6.342

Salinity (PPS): 6.218 - 34.953

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.391 - 8.325

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.243 - 0.377

Silicate (umol/l): 3.584 - 10.160
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Known predators

Carduelis (doves, Palmer's thrasher, sage sparrow, Lark bunting, House finch, goldfinch, Gambel sparrow) is prey of:
Taxidea taxus
Falco sparverius
Red racer
Pituophis
Crotalus
Urocyon cinereoargenteus
Geococcyx velox
Lynx rufus

Based on studies in:
USA: Arizona, Sonora Desert (Desert or dune)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • P. G. Howes, The Giant Cactus Forest and Its World: A Brief Biology of the Giant Cactus Forest of Our American Southwest (Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, New York; Little, Brown, Boston; 1954), from pp. 222-239, from p. 227.
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Known prey organisms

Carduelis (doves, Palmer's thrasher, sage sparrow, Lark bunting, House finch, goldfinch, Gambel sparrow) preys on:
Schismus barbatus
seeds of other plants

Based on studies in:
USA: Arizona, Sonora Desert (Desert or dune)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • P. G. Howes, The Giant Cactus Forest and Its World: A Brief Biology of the Giant Cactus Forest of Our American Southwest (Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, New York; Little, Brown, Boston; 1954), from pp. 222-239, from p. 227.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:394Public Records:213
Specimens with Sequences:305Public Species:17
Specimens with Barcodes:298Public BINs:13
Species:20         
Species With Barcodes:18         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Carduelis

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Wikipedia

Carduelis

"Chloris (bird)" redirects here. The name Chloris was also invalidly used for the bird genus Parula.

The genus Carduelis[1][2] is a large group of birds in the finch family Fringillidae. It includes the greenfinches, redpolls, goldfinches, linnets, the twite, and the non-African siskins. No species of this group ranges far into Africa (where they are replaced by the related genus Serinus), and the centers of evolution were probably Eurasia and North America, with a secondary radiation in the Neotropics.

The interrelationship of these species is complex and contentious. It is fairly certain[vague] that the crossbills are actually derived from proto-redpoll ancestors quite recently, and it was suggested that they should be placed in the same genus, for which the name Loxia would then have priority. On the other hand, the greenfinches (which are apparently the most distinct group) and the redpolls have themselves been separated in distinct genera which might be the best way to express both the actual evolutionary relationships and the evolutionarily significant distinctiveness of the crossbills. The molecular data indicates that the major lineages split in the Late Miocene (Tortonian, roughly 9-7 mya), but it is unable to suggest any one robust arrangement either of the major groups among each other, among the lineages of Carduelis sensu stricto, or indeed among two separate Serinus lineages (Ryan et al., 2004). As only the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence has hitherto been studied (Arnaiz-Villena et al., 1998), more data is clearly necessary.

Here, the species of Carduelis sensu lato are listed according to current knowledge. The genus Carduelis sensu stricto could conceivably be split further, and in this case only the European Goldfinch and the Citril and Corsican Finch (newly placed in this genus) would remain in Carduelis. The South American Classification of the AOU places South American siskins in the genus Sporagra based on research by Nguembock et al. (2009),[3] however it has not been universally adopted.

Greenfinches[edit]

(Sub)Genus Chloris

Desert Finch[edit]

(Sub)Genus Rhodospiza

Redpolls[edit]

(Sub)Genus Acanthis

Crossbills[edit]

(Sub)Genus Loxia

The taxonomy of Loxia is complicated, and the (sub)genus may consist of as few as three species or possibly dozens. The species given below are only those at least provisionally accepted by most scientists.

Carduelis sensu stricto[edit]

Carduelis group

Linaria group - linnets and Twite

Spinus group - American goldfinches and siskins

American goldfinches

Northern siskins

Neotropical siskins

Fossil species[edit]

Restoration of the extinct Carduelis aurelioi, described September 23, 2010

Possible Carduelis species[edit]

These species may be related to various groups or subgenera currently classified as members of Carduelis but have yet to be studied biochemically:

Recent taxonomical changes[edit]

On December 18, 2009, the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, in its authority as custodian of the Clement's Checklist, made the following statement: "In accord with NACC, here we split the genus Carduelis into four genera: Carduelis (linnets and twites), Spinus (siskins), Acanthis (redpolls), and Chloris (greenfinches). Similar revisions will need to be made with respect to Carpodacus and Serinus, but we defer making those changes until a later date.".[4] This follows a similar change that was published in the 50th supplement to the AOU Checklist of American Birds, " The subgenera Acanthis and Spinus are elevated to genera, and the genus Chloris is split from the genus Carduelis."[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ From Latin carduus, "thistle". Thistle seeds are a favorite food of many species.
  2. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Gomez-Prieto, Pablo; Ruiz-del-Valle, Valentín (2010). "El género Carduelis" (PDF). Ornitología Práctica 42.  (in Spanish)
  3. ^ Nguembock, B. J.; Fjeldsa;Couloux;Pasquet. (2009). "Molecular phylogeny of Carduelinae (Aves, Passeriformes, Fringillidae) proves polyphyletic origin of the genera Serinus and Carduelis and suggests redefined generic limits.". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 4251: 169–181. 
  4. ^ http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/corrections/updates-corrections-dec-2009
  5. ^ http://www.aou.org/checklist/suppl/AOU_checklist_suppl_50.pdf
  • Fry, H.; Keith, S.; Urban, E. & Woodcock, M. 2004. The Birds of Africa, Volume 7. Christopher Helm
  • Grimmett, R.; Inskipp,C. & Inskipp, T. 1999. Birds of the Indian Subcontinent . Princeton University Press
  • Martins, R.P. 1987. The Golden-winged Grosbeak in North Yemen. Sandgrouse 9: 106-110
  • Ryan, P.G.; Wright, D.; Oatley, G.; Wakeling, J.; Cohen, C.; Nowell, T.L.; Bowie, R.C.K.; Ward, V. & Crowe, T.M. 2004. Systematics of Serinus canaries and the status of Cape and Yellow-crowned Canaries inferred from mtDNA and morphology. Ostrich 75:288-294.
  • Van der Meij, M.A.A.; de Bakker, M.A.G. & Bout, R.G. A phylogeny of finches and their relatives based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.
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Redpoll

The Redpolls are a group of small passerine birds in the finch family Fringillidae which have characteristic red markings on their heads. They were formerly placed into the genus Acanthis together with the linnets and the twite, but their closest relatives are actually the crossbills, that are placed in the genus Loxia.[1][2][3] The latter genus could be merged with Carduelis in a single genus, for which the name Loxia would then have priority. But this would entail changing the name of a large number of species, and as their adaptations and biogeography are evolutionarily quite peculiar, it would be better to reinstate Acanthis instead, including only the redpolls. There are several different very closely related[4] forms of redpolls which could be considered as anything from one to five species.[5] Recent studies[6][7] tend to support three species, but this is certainly not definite.

All redpolls are northern breeding woodland species, associated with birch trees. They are small birds, brown or grey-brown above and with a red forehead patch. The adult male's breast is washed in red, but in females and young birds the buff breast and white belly are streaked with brown. The bill is small and yellow. Some birds, particularly young ones, are difficult to assign to species.

They are primarily seed-eaters, and often feed acrobatically like a tit; their diet may include some insects in summer. They have a dry reeling song and a metallic call. They lay 4–7 eggs in a nest in a tree or, in the case of the Arctic Redpoll, a large bush. They can form large flocks outside the breeding season, sometimes mixed with other finches.

The species are:

  • Arctic Redpoll (Carduelis hornemanni)
    • C. h. hornemanni (Greenland Arctic Redpoll)
    • C. h. exilipes (Hoary Redpoll))
  • Common Redpoll (Carduelis flammea)
    • C. f. flammea (Mealy Redpoll)
    • C. f. islandica (Icelandic Redpoll)
    • C. f. rostrata (Greenland Redpoll))
  • Lesser Redpoll (Carduelis cabaret)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Alvarez-Tejado M., Ruiz-del-Valle V., García-de-la-Torre C., Varela P, Recio M. J., Ferre S., Martinez-Laso J. (1998). "Phylogeny and rapid Northern and Southern Hemisphere speciation of goldfinches during the Miocene and Pliocene Epochs". Cell.Mol.Life.Sci. 54(9):1031-41. 
  2. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A.; Guillén, J.; Ruiz-del-Valle, V.; Lowy, E.; Zamora, J.; Varela, P.; Stefani, D.; Allende, L. M. (2001). "Phylogeography of crossbills, bullfinches, grosbeaks, and rosefinches". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 58 (8): 1159–1166. doi:10.1007/PL00000930. PMID 11529508. 
  3. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A; Gómez-Prieto P, Ruiz-de-Valle V (2009). "Phylogeography of finches and sparrows". Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-60741-844--3. 
  4. ^ Seutin, G.; Ratcliffe, L. M. & Boag, P. T. (1995): Mitochondrial DNA homogeneity in the phenotypically diverse redpoll finch complex (Aves: Carduelinae: Carduelis flammea - hornemanni). Evolution 49(5): 962–973. doi:10.2307/2410418 (HTML abstract and first page image)
  5. ^ Knox, A. G. (1988): The taxonomy of redpolls. Ardea 76(1): 1–26.
  6. ^ Herremans, M. 1990. Taxonomy and evolution in Redpolls Carduelis flammea – hornemanni; a multivariate study of their biometry. Ardea 78(3): 441–458. HTML abstract
  7. ^ Sangster, George; Knox, Alan G.; Helbig, Andreas J. & Parkin, David T. (2002): Taxonomic recommendations for European birds. Ibis 144(1): 153–159. doi:10.1046/j.0019-1019.2001.00026.x PDF fulltext

Further reading[edit]

  • Knox, A. G., and P. E. Lowther. 2000. Hoary Redpoll (Carduelis hornemanni). In The Birds of North America, No. 544 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
  • Knox, A. G., and P. E. Lowther. 2000. Common Redpoll (Carduelis flammea). In The Birds of North America, No. 543 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
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