Ecology

Associations

Known predators

Calanoida (carnivorous Calanoida) is prey of:
Cyclopoidea
Cnidaria
Calanoida
Tomopteridae
Chaetognatha
Polychaeta
Engraulidae
zooplankton
Actinopterygii
Parathemisto
Boreogadus saida
Rissa
Procellariidae

Based on studies in:
Pacific (Marine)
Russia (Lake or pond)
Canada, high Arctic (Ice cap)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • E. A. Shushkina and M. E. Vinogradov, Trophic relationships in communities and the functioning of marine ecosystems: II. Some results of investigations on the pelagic ecosystem in tropical regions of the ocean. In: Marine Production Mechanisms, M. J. Dun
  • M. E. Vinogradov and E. A. Shushkina, Some development patterns of plankton communities in the upwelling areas of the Pacific Ocean. Mar. Biol. 48:357-366, from p. 359 (1978).
  • M. S. W. Bradstreet and W. E. Cross, Trophic relationships at High Arctic ice edges, Arctic 3(1)5:1-12, from p. 9 (1982).
  • Y. I. Sorokin, Biological productivity of the Rybinsk reservoir. In: Productivity Problems of Freshwaters, Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, Eds. (Polish Scientific, Warsaw, 1972), pp. 493-503, from p. 497.
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Known prey organisms

Calanoida (carnivorous Calanoida) preys on:
phytoplankton
bacteria
zooflagellates
ciliates
meroplankton
Appendicularia
Doliolidae
Calanoida
Cyclopoidea
bacterioplankton
Bacillariophyceae
protozoa
Mysidacea
Ostracoda
Euphausiacea
Hyperiidea
Cyclopoida

Based on studies in:
Pacific (Marine)
Russia (Lake or pond)
Canada, high Arctic (Ice cap)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • E. A. Shushkina and M. E. Vinogradov, Trophic relationships in communities and the functioning of marine ecosystems: II. Some results of investigations on the pelagic ecosystem in tropical regions of the ocean. In: Marine Production Mechanisms, M. J. Dun
  • M. E. Vinogradov and E. A. Shushkina, Some development patterns of plankton communities in the upwelling areas of the Pacific Ocean. Mar. Biol. 48:357-366, from p. 359 (1978).
  • M. S. W. Bradstreet and W. E. Cross, Trophic relationships at High Arctic ice edges, Arctic 3(1)5:1-12, from p. 9 (1982).
  • Y. I. Sorokin, Biological productivity of the Rybinsk reservoir. In: Productivity Problems of Freshwaters, Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, Eds. (Polish Scientific, Warsaw, 1972), pp. 493-503, from p. 497.
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Bristles and barbs capture minute foods: Calanoid copepods
 

Suspension-feeding appendages of Calanoid copepods capture minute particles and organisms from the surrounding water with the help of attached bristles and barbs.

     
  "Many aquatic animals feed on small particles that they remove from the surrounding water using suspension-feeding appendages…Calanoid copepods are small (of the order of millimeters in length) planktonic crustaceans that can be extremely abundant in oceans and lakes…the spectrum of particles removed from the water by different copepods varies. A feeding copepod propels a current of water past itself by flapping four pairs of appendages; this is the 'scanning current'. When a parcel of water containing a food particle nears a copepod, the animal actively captures that water and particle using another pair of appendages, the second maxillae…short appendages bearing long bristles, called 'setae'. The setae are studded with barbs, called 'setules'. During capture motion, the second maxillae fling apart, thereby sucking water between them, and then squeeze back together again over the water. During the squeeze, the only escape route for the water is between the setae of the second maxillae. Particles retained within the basked formed by the squeezing second maxillae are then combed into the mouth by another pair of appendages." (Koehl 1983:1, 3, 4)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Koehl, M. A. R. 1983. The morphology and performance of suspension-feeding appendages. J. Theor. Biol. 105: 1-11.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:8257
Specimens with Sequences:5667
Specimens with Barcodes:5196
Species:428
Species With Barcodes:332
Public Records:4636
Public Species:253
Public BINs:460
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Barcode data

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