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 Thallus: adnate to loosely adnate, foliose, 5-20 cm in diam., sometimes forming extensive patches, irregularly lobate; lobes: subirregular, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, 5-13 mm wide, contiguous to somewhat imbricate; apices rotund, crenate, eciliate; upper surface: yellow green to pale yellow, occasionally green-gray (in shade), smooth but becoming rugose and folded with age, dull to somewhat shiny; epruinose and emaculate; soredia: laminal, granular to wart-like, initially in circular soralia but becoming diffuse and confluent; isidia: absent; medulla: white with continuous algal layer; lower surface: black centrally, brown and naked peripherally; rhizines: dense to sparse centrally to edge of brown zone, black, simple, sometime brown or white tipped; Apothecia: rare, up to 8 mm wide, laminal, sessile; disc: brown; margin: smooth but sorediate sometimes; asci: clavate, 8-spored; ascospores: simple, ellipsoid, hyaline, 15-24 x 8-13 µm; Pycnidia: laminal, immersed; conidia: weakly bifusiform, 6 x 1 µm; Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P+ red; Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (major) and atranorin (trace); medulla with protocetraric acid (major) and caperatic acid (minor).; Substrate and ecology: on broad leafed trees, shrubs and fence posts in open habitats, coastal to montane up to 2000m, rarely on rocks; World distribution: North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa; Sonoran distribution: common on oaks, particularly in coastal California and Baja California, occasionally in central Arizona southwards into the Sierra Madre Occidental of Sonora and Chihuahua. 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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