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The life history of this species has been discussed and illustrated by Higgins (1975), Acquier (1981), Pamperis 1997 (Greece), and Hesselbarth et al. (1995). Hemming (1967) gave a detailed explanation on the nomenclatorial history of Z. polyxena and how this name was finally established as the valid name. Genitalia are illustrated by Higgins (1975). Coutsis (1989) pointed out variation in valvae among some European populations. Sijaric (1989) studied wing pattern variability within populations in Yugoslavia, and Lux (1990) conducted a similar study on variation within a single subspecies, Z. polyxena creusa, in France. Hesselbarth et al. (1995) have provided a historical summary of research on Z. polyxena.