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Introduction

The genus Hypermnestra is monotypic and its only species, H. helios, flies in the lowlands of central Asia.

The life history of Hypermnestra helios was studied by Le Cerf (1913) and Igarashi (1984), who gave detailed accounts of every life stage. Many publications on butterflies of Russia and central Asia (eg. Tuzov et al., 1997, Tshikolovets, 1998-2003) also treat H. helios. Some other particularly interesting studies include Müller (1976) who studied the microscopic properties of wing scales in Hypermnestra and Parnassius, and emphasized the importance of these characters in taxonomy. Also, Kuznetsov and Stekolnikov (1996) report similarities in genitalia musculature between Hypermnestra and Papilio machaon and discuss the phylogenetic significance of their findings.

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