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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in isolated populations to the west and south of the valley of Mexico, in the states of Morelos and Mexico and the Distrito Federal. The known populations include Lagunas de Zempoala, Ajusco Mountain and Desierto de los Leones, although it has also been found in some additional sites. Its altitudinal range is 2,700-3,200m asl.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116623
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116622
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116621
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116620
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116619
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116618
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116617
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Holotype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116616
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116614
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116624
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116628
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116626
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116625
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paratype for Ambystoma altamirani
Catalog Number: USNM 116627
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. & Smith, H. M. 1945. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 95 (3185): 527.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species lives and breeds in small, permanent streams flowing through high-elevation pine or pine-oak woodland forests. It has also been found in streams in cleared pastures. Although metamorphosis is complete, in the wild some adults as well as larvae remain in the stream year-round.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A2ace; B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Shaffer, H.B., Parra-Olea, G., Wake, D. & Flores-Villela, O.

Reviewer/s
Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A. & Young, B.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered because of a serious population decline, estimated to be more than 50% over the last three generations, inferred from the extent of habitat degradation and a sharply decreased number of records of wild individuals; and because its its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2 and its Area Of Occupancy is less than 500 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and in the extent and quality of its habitat around the Valley of Mexico.
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Population

Population
The species was formerly common, with larvae present in most small streams within its range. It appears now to be greatly reduced.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The forest and stream habitat in the vicinity of Mexico City where the species lives has been severely altered, leading to greatly degraded habitat. Illegal logging in national parks, very heavy recreational tourism, stream pollution and sedimentation, and stream diversion have all had negative impacts. Introduced predatory fishes (trout and others) have eliminated the species from many streams, and local consumption for food may be an issue.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs, or used to occur, in three national parks: Lagunas de Zempoala, Ajusco Mountain, and Desierto de los Leones. However, surveys conducted in the 1970s and 1980s recorded the species as present in Ajusco and Desierto de los Leones, but absent from Lagunas de Zempoala. There is an urgent need for more effective conservation of the forest and streams of this species, including the control of introduced predatory fishes, and for new field surveys to assess declines that may have occurred in the last 15 years. This species is protected by Mexican law under the "Special Protection" category (Pr).
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Wikipedia

Mountain stream salamander

The mountain stream salamander or mountain stream siredon (Ambystoma altamirani) is a species of mole salamander that only lives in central México.

Contents

Description

The mountain stream salamander grows to be about 115 mm long. Its tail is slender, has a low fin along the top, and an even smaller fin on the bottom of the tail. The tail is about 50mm. The limbs are also slender. The dorsal surface and the sides are a purplish-black color, while the belly is a purplish- lavender. The chin and lower surfaces of the limbs are clouded with a light lavender hue. The edges of the lips, tips of the digits, and the fin on the bottom of the tail are a cream color.[3]

Habitat

The mountain stream salamander lives to the west and south of the Valley of Mexico. It lives in an altitude range of 2,700 to 3,200 m above sea level. This species lives and breeds in small streams that flow through high-elevation pine or pine-oak woodland forests. They can also be found in the streams of cleared pastures. Adult mountain stream salamanders live both on land and in streams.[1]

Ecology

The mountain stream salamander goes through a metamorphic change to become an adult. The salamander starts out as larvae and can only survive in streams. As they mature they gain limbs and the ability to live on land, as well as lose their gills and fins. Some adults, and larvae, stay in the streams year-long, but other adults go off and live on land. The adults will come back to the stream to breed and lay eggs. After laying the eggs, the adult leave their babies, showing no signs of parental care.[3]

Status

The species is currently considered an endangered species because of the huge decreases in population over the past three generations. This decrease has been caused by changes in its habitat. Illegal logging in national parks, very heavy recreational tourism, stream pollution and sedimentation, stream diversion, and the introduced predatory fishes, like trout, have all had negative impacts of the mountain stream salamander. These negative impacts have all led to the death of the mountain stream species, which then leads to a decrease in the population. Because of this, the species is now protected by the Mexican law under "Special Protection"(Pr).[1]

See also

References

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