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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 3567 specimens in 20 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 112 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 125.3
  Temperature range (°C): -0.541 - 7.898
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.212 - 5.394
  Salinity (PPS): 5.681 - 31.147
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.079 - 8.768
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.114 - 1.505
  Silicate (umol/l): 11.425 - 32.641

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 125.3

Temperature range (°C): -0.541 - 7.898

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.212 - 5.394

Salinity (PPS): 5.681 - 31.147

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.079 - 8.768

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.114 - 1.505

Silicate (umol/l): 11.425 - 32.641
 
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Migration

Introduction

This species has been introduced or released in Dutch waters.
  • Nijssen, H.; de Groot, S.J. (1987). De vissen van Nederland: systematische indeling, historisch overzicht, het ontstaan van de viskweek, uitheemse vissoorten, determineersleutels, beschrijvingen, afbeeldingen, literatuur, van alle in Nederlandse wateren voor komende zee- en zoetwatervissoorten [Fishes of the Netherlands: systematic classification, historical overview, origins of fish culture, non-indigenous species, determination keys, descriptions, drawings, literature references on all marine and freshwater fish species living in Dutch waters]. KNNV Uitgeverij: Utrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-5011-006-1. 224 pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:678Public Records:223
Specimens with Sequences:588Public Species:16
Specimens with Barcodes:586Public BINs:5
Species:27         
Species With Barcodes:27         
          
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Coregonus TAXStarn

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Coregonus TAXChiem

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Coregonus TAXcfbavaricus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Coregonus

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Wikipedia

Cisco (fish)

The ciscoes (or ciscos) are salmonid fish of the genus Coregonus that differ from other members of the genus in having upper and lower jaws of approximately equal length and high gill raker counts. These species have been the focus of much study recently, as researchers have sought to determine the relationships among species that appear to have evolved very recently. The term cisco is also specifically used of the North American species Coregonus artedi, also known as lake herring.

In previous taxonomic classifications, the ciscoes have been identified as a subgenus Leucichthys of the genus Coregonus. Based on molecular data this is not a natural classification however, but the ciscoes are polyphyletic, comprising two different lineages within the freshwater whitefishes.[1]

Contents

Continental North American ciscoes: Coregonus artedi sensu lato[edit]

Eight taxa of cisco have been recognized in the Laurentian Great Lakes and other interior lakes of the once-glaciated North America.[2]

Usually, several taxa of ciscoes are found in a single lake. They exhibit different habitat distributions, feeding and breeding habits and morphological adaptations e.g. in their gill raker numbers. In the Great Lakes, at least five ciscoes coexist.[3]

According to genetic analyses, these cisco types do not represent unique, separate evolutionary lineages, but similar cisco morphs have evolved and attained their specific characteristics largely independently in each lake. Therefore it has been suggested that they should not be recognized formally as distinct taxa, but all considered members of a single species, Coregonus artedi (sensu lato).[3] or Coregonus artedi complex. Nevertheless for conservation and management purposes the sympatric morphs in each lake should be considered ESUs, evolutionarily significant units.[3] This taxonomic view is not widely accepted however, which has complicated discussions of the conservation status of some species.[4]

Ciscoes have been exploited in commercial fisheries, particularly in the Laurentian Great Lakes where the deepwater forms were the basis of the so-called chub fishery. The chub fishery had nothing to do with the various cyprinid fish species known as chubs but was exclusively based on the various species of ciscoes. The fishery continued as cisco stocks fell and non-native species such as sea lamprey, rainbow smelt and alewife spread through the system and increased in abundance. Alewife, in particular, have been implicated as a predator of cisco eggs and larvae, and as a competitor with ciscoes. The fishery shifted focus from species to species as cisco numbers declined and has been largely defunct for some years.

Bering cisco

Ciscoes of northwestern North America[edit]

Three species of cisco inhabit waters of the northwestern North America. These have been found to represent distinct evolutionary lineages, by genetic data.[3]

Eurasian ciscoes[edit]

The ranges of the three cisco species above extend across Beringia to the Asian coasts. Of those the Arctic cisco and least cisco (=sardine cisco) are widespread through northern Siberia. In the inland waters of northern Europe, the European cisco or vendace (Coregonus albula) replaces the Siberian sardine cisco. Some of the cisco lineages are genetically very close, such as the European and sardine ciscoes. Within some species, geographically separated populations have been treated as distinct taxa, despite close genetic relationships, such as the vendace and the pollan (Arctic cisco) on the British Isles. The European cisco has also evolved into ecologically distinct sympatric populations or ecomorphs independently within several lakes (e.g. autumn and spring spawning populations, normal and dwarf morphs), which have been designated as distinct taxa, making the systematics complicated as with the North American Coregonus artedi complex.

Phylogeny[edit]

Based on molecular data from mitochondrial DNA, the ciscoes comprise two distinct, unrelated groups:[1]

  • The Coregonus artedi complex along with C. laurettae and C. autumnalis lineages
  • The Coregonus sardinella complex, including C. peled and C. albula. This group is more closely related to the "true whitefishes" (e.g. the common whitefish C. lavaretus, lake whitefish C. clupeaformis) than to the C. artedi complex ciscoes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bernatchez L, Colombani F, Dodson JJ (1991) Phylogenetic relationships among the subfamily Coregoninae as revealed by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis Journal of Fish Biology 39 (Suppl A):283-290.
  2. ^ Scott, W.B., Crossman, E.J. (1973) Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. B. Canada 184, 1–1092
  3. ^ a b c d Turgeon, J. & Bernatchez, L. (2003) Reticulate evolution and phenotypic diversity in North American ciscoes, Coregonus ssp. (Teleostei: Salmonidae): implications for the conservation of an evolutionary legacy Conservation Genetics 4: 67–81
  4. ^ COSEWIC (2007). COSEWIC assesment and update status report of the blackfin cisco Coregonus nigripinnis in Canada Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. vi + 23 pp
  5. ^ Politov DV, Bickham JW, Patton JC (2004) Molecular phylogeography of Palearctic and Nearctic ciscoes. Ann. Zool. Fennici 41:13-23.
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Coregonus

Coregonus is a diverse genus of fish in the salmon family (Salmonidae). The type species is Coregonus lavaretus. The Coregonus species are known as whitefishes. The genus contains at least 68 described extant taxa, but the true number of species is a matter of debate.

Several species, including the Arctic cisco (C. autumnalis), the Bering cisco (C. laurettae), and the least cisco (C. sardinella) are anadromous, moving between salt water and fresh water.

The genus was previously subdivided into two subgenera Coregonus ("true whitefishes") and Leucichthys ("ciscoes"), Coregonus comprising taxa with sub-terminal mouth and usually a benthic feeding habit, Leucichthys those with terminal or supra-terminal mouth and usually a pelagic plankton-feeding habit. This classification is not natural however: based on molecular data, ciscoes comprise two distinct lineages within the genus. Moreover, the genus Stenodus is not phylogenetically distinct from Coregonus.[1]

Many whitefish species or ecotypes, especially from the Great Lakes and the Alpine lakes of Europe, have gone extinct over the past century or are endangered. All Coregonus species are protected under appendix III of the Bern Convention.

Species

There is much uncertainty and confusion in the classification of the many of species of this genus. There are currently 78 extant and recently extinct species in this genus recognised by FishBase as of February 2012 (extinct species are marked with a dagger, "†"):[2]

Cisco or lake herring, Coregonus artedi
Common whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (sensu lato)

References

  1. ^ Bernatchez L, Colombani F, Dodson JJ (1991) Phylogenetic relationships among the subfamily Coregoninae as revealed by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis Journal of Fish Biology 39 (Suppl A):283-290.
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Species of Coregonus in FishBase. February 2012 version.
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