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The life stages of Z. rumina are discussed by Nardelli (1993; European Z. rumina) as well as Tarrier et al. (1994) and Binagot and Lartigue (1998) (African subspecies africana and tarrieri). Genitalia have been illustrated by Higgins (1975). For the classification of Spanish populations, see Sabariego and Martinez (1991). An extremely rare form, f. honnorati (Type locality: Digne, France) (reconstructed above), although often considered extinct since a hundred years ago, is still protected by law in France (Collins and Morris, 1985; Bernardi, 1991). The last official observation was 1991.