The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bailowitz, R. 1991. Butterflies of Southeastern Arizona. Tucson, Arizona: Sonoran Arthropod Studies.
  • Comstock, J. 1927. Butterflies of California: a popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of California, embracing all of the 477 species and varieties at present recorded for the state. Los Angeles, California: J.A. Comstock.
  • Harris, L. 1972. Butterflies of Georgia. Norman, Oklahoma, USA: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Häuser C., Holstein J., Kroupa A.S., Steiner A. & Turiault M. (eds) (2015). GloBIS (GART): Global Butterfly Information System (version Sep 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Milius, S. 1998. "How Bright Is a Butterfly?" (On-line). Science News Online. Accessed 01/29/2008 at
  • Nice, C., J. Fordyce. 2006. How caterpillars avoid overheating: behavioral and phenotypic plasticity of pipevine swallowtail larvae. Oecologia, 146: 541-548.
  • Opler, P., R. Stanford, H. Pavulaan. 1995. "Butterflies of North America" (On-line). Accessed October 25, 2000 at
  • Pelham, Jonathan P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, vol. 40. xiv + 658
  • Pyle, R. 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
  • Scott, J. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press.


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