The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Col, J. 1999. "Enchanted Learning" (On-line). Accessed February 18, 2001 at
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Holland, W. 1910. The Butterfly Book. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page and Company.
  • Häuser C., Holstein J., Kroupa A.S., Steiner A. & Turiault M. (eds) (2015). GloBIS (GART): Global Butterfly Information System (version Sep 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Parenti, U. 1972. Butterflies and Moths. London: Orbis Publishing Limited.
  • Parenti, U. 1977. The World of Butterflies and Moths. New York, New York: G. P. Putman's Sons.
  • Pelham, Jonathan P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, vol. 40. xiv + 658
  • Pyle, R. 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
  • Stokes, D., L. Stokes, E. Williams. 1991. The Butterfly Book. New York, New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Tveten, J., G. Tveten. 1996. Butterflies of Houston and Southeast Texas. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.
  • Type:; : Field, W. Pomona College Journal of Entomology and Zoology. 28 (2): 20.


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