Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Current range: East Maui. Historically no additional range.

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Historic Range:
U.S.A. (HI)

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Physical Description

Type Information

Holotype for Geranium arboreum A. Gray
Catalog Number: US 14434
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Wilkes Explor. Exped.
Year Collected: 1838
Locality: Mountains of eastern Maui., Maui, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
Elevation (m): 1829 to 1829
  • Holotype: Gray, A. 1854. U.S. Explor. Exped. 15: 315.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Subalpine shrublands, usually in gulches.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20

Comments: 10 current (between 1982 and 1997) and 4 historical occurrences.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Geranium arboreum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Geranium arboreum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled

Reasons: Endemic to East Maui. It is currently restricted to a band of subalpine shrublands on the western and northwestern flanks of Haleakala. Fewer than 500 plants are thought to remain. The major threats to this species are cattle, feral pigs, and alien plants.

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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Endangered
Date Listed: 05/13/1992
Lead Region:   Pacific Region (Region 1) 
Where Listed:


Population detail:

Listing status: E

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Geranium arboreum, see its USFWS Species Profile

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Threats

Comments: Threats include alien plants and alien animals (pigs).

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Management

Biological Research Needs: Population biology and ecology.

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Wikipedia

Geranium arboreum

Geranium arboreum is a rare species of geranium known by the common names Hawaiian red-flowered geranium and Hawaii red cranesbill. It is endemic to Hawaii, where it is known only from the island of Maui.[1] It was federally listed as an endangered species in 1992.[2] Like other Hawaiian geraniums, this plant is known as hinahina and nohoanu.[3]

This plant is a shrub which can reach 4 meters in height. The leaves have green, toothed blades up to 3.8 centimeters long. The flowers are red or magenta. The upper petals are erect, but the lower two are curved under.[2] The shape of the flower indicates it is pollinated by birds, which is unique among the geraniums.[1][2]

This plant grows in gulches on the slopes of the volcano Haleakalā. There are no more than 500 individuals left.[1]

The main threat to this species is the degradation of its habitat by grazing cattle, feral pigs, and non-native plant species invading the area.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Geranium arboreum. The Nature Conservancy.
  2. ^ a b c d USFWS. Determination of endangered status for Geranium arboreum (Hawaiian Red-Flowered Geranium). Federal Register May 13, 1992.
  3. ^ Geranium. Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.
  • Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, volume 1, 1990, Warren L. Wagner, Derral R. Herbst, S. H. Sohmer, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, ISBN 0-8248-1152-6
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