Regularity: Regularly occurring
Global Range: Current range: East Maui. Historically no additional range.
Catalog Number: US 14434
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Wilkes Explor. Exped.
Year Collected: 1838
Locality: Mountains of eastern Maui., Maui, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
Elevation (m): 1829 to 1829
- Holotype: Gray, A. 1854. U.S. Explor. Exped. 15: 315.
Comments: Subalpine shrublands, usually in gulches.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Comments: 10 current (between 1982 and 1997) and 4 historical occurrences.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Geranium arboreum
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Geranium arboreum
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to East Maui. It is currently restricted to a band of subalpine shrublands on the western and northwestern flanks of Haleakala. Fewer than 500 plants are thought to remain. The major threats to this species are cattle, feral pigs, and alien plants.
Date Listed: 05/13/1992
Lead Region: Pacific Region (Region 1)
Listing status: E
For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Geranium arboreum, see its USFWS Species Profile
Comments: Threats include alien plants and alien animals (pigs).
Biological Research Needs: Population biology and ecology.
Geranium arboreum is a rare species of geranium known by the common names Hawaiian red-flowered geranium and Hawaii red cranesbill. It is endemic to Hawaii, where it is known only from the island of Maui. It was federally listed as an endangered species in 1992. Like other Hawaiian geraniums, this plant is known as hinahina and nohoanu.
This plant is a shrub which can reach 4 meters in height. The leaves have green, toothed blades up to 3.8 centimeters long. The flowers are red or magenta. The upper petals are erect, but the lower two are curved under. The shape of the flower indicates it is pollinated by birds, which is unique among the geraniums.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Geranium arboreum.|
- Geranium arboreum. The Nature Conservancy.
- USFWS. Determination of endangered status for Geranium arboreum (Hawaiian Red-Flowered Geranium). Federal Register May 13, 1992.
- Geranium. Smithsonian Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.
- Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, volume 1, 1990, Warren L. Wagner, Derral R. Herbst, S. H. Sohmer, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, ISBN 0-8248-1152-6
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