Overview

Brief Summary

The genus Clupea, the herrings, contains three species. The two main species, Atlantic herring (C. harengus), and Pacific herring (C. pallasii), both from northern waters, are broken into several major subspecies. The smaller and less common Araucanian herring (C. bentincki) inhabits the southeast Pacific. A fourth Asian species, C. manulensis is of uncertain validity. Clupea, the largest of which reach 46 cms, are recognized as the most populous fish in the world, and because of this, perhaps the most important species. They swim in enormous, fast-moving schools, and eat large quantities of zooplankton, especially copepods. In turn, they an provide food source for many predators, including humans (also seabirds, dolphins, porpoises, striped bass, seals, sea lions, whales, sharks, dog fish, tuna, cod, salmon, and halibut). They were overfished in 1990. An oily fish, they are prepared in many ways such as salted, pickled, fermented, raw, dried and smoked, with many regional specialties.

(Binohlan 2011; The Herring Network; Wikipedia 2012)

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 509864 specimens in 7 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 289816 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -9 - 492
  Temperature range (°C): -1.960 - 24.323
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.663 - 34.597
  Salinity (PPS): 5.681 - 36.264
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.901 - 8.768
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.114 - 2.965
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 55.359

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -9 - 492

Temperature range (°C): -1.960 - 24.323

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.663 - 34.597

Salinity (PPS): 5.681 - 36.264

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.901 - 8.768

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.114 - 2.965

Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 55.359
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Known predators

Clupea (Scomber, Clupea) is prey of:
Pomatomus
Phoca

Based on studies in:
USA: Massachusetts, Cape Ann (Marine, Sublittoral)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 272 (1947).
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Known prey organisms

Clupea (Scomber, Clupea) preys on:
plankton
detritus
Fundulus

Based on studies in:
USA: Massachusetts, Cape Ann (Marine, Sublittoral)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 272 (1947).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:274Public Records:174
Specimens with Sequences:216Public Species:5
Specimens with Barcodes:208Public BINs:5
Species:5         
Species With Barcodes:5         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Clupea

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Wikipedia

Clupea

Clupea is genus of planktivorous bony fish belonging to the family Clupeidae, commonly known as herrings. They are found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized. The main taxa, the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) may each be divided into subspecies. Herrings are forage fish moving in vast schools, coming in spring to the shores of Europe and America, where they form important commercial fisheries.

Morphology[edit source | edit]

The species of Clupea belong to the larger family Clupeidae (herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens), which comprises some 200 species that share similar features. They are silvery-colored fish that have a single dorsal fin, which is soft, without spines. They have no lateral line and have a protruding lower jaw. Their size varies between subspecies: the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) is small, 14 to 18 centimeters; the proper Atlantic herring (C. h. harengus) can grow to about 46 cm (18 inches) and weigh up 700 g (1.5 pounds); and Pacific herring grow to about 38 cm (15 inches).

Species[edit source | edit]

Clupea species
Common nameScientific nameMaximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
Fish
Base
FAOITISIUCN status
Araucanian herringClupea bentincki Norman, 193628.4 cmcmkgyears2.69[2][3][4]Not assessed
Atlantic herringClupea harengus Linnaeus, 175845.0 cm30.0 cm1.05 kg22 years3.23[5][6][7]LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[8]
    - Atlantic herring    - C. h. harengus Linnaeus, 1758[9]
    - Baltic herring    - C. h. membras Valenciennes, 1847[10]
Pacific herringClupea pallasii Valenciennes, 184746.0 cm25.0 cm19 years3.15[11][12][13]Not assessed
    - Pacific herring    - C. p. pallasii Valenciennes, 184746.0 cm25.0 cm[11]-
    - White Sea herring    - C. p. marisalbi L. S. Berg, 192334.0 cm[14]-[15]
    - Chosa herring    - C. p. suworowi Rabinerson, 192731.5 cm[16]-
Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus)

Ecology[edit source | edit]

See Atlantic herring for videos of juvenile herring feeding by catching copepods.

Video loop of a school of Atlantic herring migratiing to their spawning grounds in the Baltic Sea

Predators of herring include humans, seabirds, dolphins, porpoises, striped bass, seals, sea lions, whales, sharks, dog fish, tuna, cod, salmon, and halibut. Other large fish also feed on adult herring.[citation needed]

Young herring feed on phytoplankton and as they mature they start to consume larger organisms. Adult herring feed on zooplankton, tiny animals that are found in oceanic surface waters, and small fish and fish larvae. Copepods and other tiny crustaceans are the most common zooplankton eaten by herring. During daylight herring stay in the safety of deep water, feeding at the surface only at night when there is less chance of being seen by predators. They swim along with their mouths open, filtering the plankton from the water as it passes through their gills.

Fisheries[edit source | edit]

Commercial herring catch

Adult herring are harvested for their meat and eggs, and they are often used as baitfish. The trade in herring is an important sector of many national economies. In Europe the fish has been called the "silver of the sea", and its trade has been so significant to many countries that it has been regarded as the most commercially important fishery in history.[17] Environmental Defense have suggested that the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) fishery is one of the more environmentally responsible fisheries.[18]

Medieval herring fishing in Scania, 1555

Sources[edit source | edit]

  • Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). Species of Clupea in FishBase. January 2006 version.
  • O'Clair, Rita M. and O'Clair, Charles E., "Pacific herring," Southeast Alaska's Rocky Shores: Animals. pg. 343-346. Plant Press: Auke Bay, Alaska (1998). ISBN 0-9664245-0-6

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology 364: 560. Retrieved 2007-12-25. 
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Clupea bentincki" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  3. ^ Clupea bentincki (Norman, 1936) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  4. ^ "Clupea bentincki". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012. 
  5. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Clupea harengus" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  6. ^ Clupea harengus (Linnaeus, 1758) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  7. ^ "Clupea harengus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012. 
  8. ^ Herdson D and Priede I (2011). "Xiphias gladius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  9. ^ "Clupea harengus harengus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012. 
  10. ^ "Clupea harengus membras". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012. 
  11. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Clupea pallasii pallasii" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  12. ^ Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes, 1847) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  13. ^ "Clupea pallasii". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012. 
  14. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Clupea pallasii marisalbi" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  15. ^ "Clupea pallasii marisalbi". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012. 
  16. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Clupea pallasii suworowi" in FishBase. April 2012 version.: "Status needs confirmation."
  17. ^ Herring, from Census of Marine Life, 2010.
  18. ^ Eco-Best Fish - Safe for the environment, from Environmental Defense Fund, 2010.
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Herring

Herring

Video loop of a school of Atlantic herring migrating to their spawning grounds in the Baltic Sea

Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae. They often move in large schools around fishing banks and near the coast. The most abundant and commercially important species belong to the genus Clupea, found particularly in shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea, as well as off the west coast of South America. Three species of Clupea are recognized, and provide about 90% of all herrings captured in fisheries. Most abundant of all is the Atlantic herring, providing over half of all herring capture.

Herrings played a pivotal role in the history of marine fisheries in Europe,[1] and early in the twentieth century their study was fundamental to evolution of fisheries science.[2][3] These oily fish[4] also have a long history as an important food fish, and are often salted, smoked, or pickled.

Contents

Species

A number of different species, most belonging to the family Clupeidae, are commonly referred to as herrings. The origins of the term herring is somewhat unclear, though it may derive from the Old High German heri meaning a "host, multitude", in reference to the large schools they form.[5]

The type genus of the herring family Clupeidae is Clupea.[3] Clupea contains three species: the Atlantic herring (the type species) found in the north Atlantic, the Pacific herring found in the north Pacific, and the Araucanian herring found off the coast of Chile. Subspecific divisions have been suggested for both the Atlantic and Pacific herrings, but their biological basis remain unclear.

This article is
one of a series on
Commercial fish
Blue walleye.jpg
Predator
billfish, bonito
mackerel, salmon
shark, tuna

Forage
anchovy, herring
menhaden, sardine
shad, sprat

Demersal
cod, flatfish
pollock, ray
Herrings in the genus Clupea
Common nameScientific nameMaximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
Fish
Base
FAOITISIUCN status
Araucanian herringClupea bentincki Norman, 193628.4 cmcmkgyears2.69[6][7][8]Not assessed
Atlantic herringClupea harengus Linnaeus, 175845.0 cm30.0 cm1.05 kg22 years3.23[9][10][11]LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[12]
Pacific herringClupea pallasii Valenciennes, 184746.0 cm25.0 cm19 years3.15[13][14][15]Not assessed

In addition, a number of related species, all in the family Clupeidae, are commonly referred to as herrings. The table immediately below includes those members of the Clupeidae family referred to by FishBase as herrings which have been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

There are also a number of other species called herrings, which may be related to clupeids or just share some characteristics of herrings (such as the lake herring, which is a salmonid). Just which of these species are called herrings can vary with locality, so what might be called a herring in one locality might be called something else in another locality. Some examples:

Characteristics

The species of Clupea belong to the larger family Clupeidae (herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens), which comprise some 200 species that share similar features. These silvery-colored fish have a single dorsal fin, which is soft, without spines. They have no lateral line and have a protruding lower jaw. Their size varies between subspecies: the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) is small, 14 to 18 centimeters; the proper Atlantic herring (C. h. harengus) can grow to about 46 cm (18 inches) and weigh up 700 g (1.5 pounds); and Pacific herring grow to about 38 cm (15 inches).

Life cycle

Herring spawn

At least one herring stock spawns in every month of the year. Each spawns at a different time and place (spring, summer, autumn and winter herrings). Greenland populations spawn in 0–5 metres (0–16 ft). North Sea (bank) herrings spawn at up to 200 metres (660 ft) in autumn. Eggs are laid on the sea bed, on rock, stones, gravel, sand or beds of algae. "...the fish were darting rapidly about, and those who have opportunity to see the fish spawning in more shallow water ... state that both males and females are in constant motion, rubbing against one another and upon the bottom, apparently by pressure aiding in the discharge of the eggs and milt" (Moore at Cross Island, Maine).

Females may deposit from 20,000 up to 40,000 eggs, according to age and size, averaging about 30,000. In sexually mature herrings, the genital organs grow before spawning, reaching about one-fifth of its total weight.

The eggs sink to the bottom, where they stick in layers or clumps to gravel, seaweeds or stones, by means of their coating mucus, or to any other objects on which they chance to settle.

If the egg layers are too thick they suffer from oxygen depletion and often die, entangled in a maze of fucus. They need substantial water microturbulence, generally provided by wave action or coastal currents. Survival is highest in crevices and behind solid structures, because predators feast on openly disposed eggs. The individual eggs are 1 to 1.4 millimetres (0.039 to 0.055 in) in diameter, depending on the size of the parent fish and also on the local race. Incubation time is about 40 days at 3 °C (37 °F), 15 days at 7 °C (45 °F), 11 days at 10 °C (50 °F). Eggs die at temperatures above 19 °C (66 °F).

The larvae are 5 to 6 millimetres (0.20 to 0.24 in) long at hatching, with a small yolk sac that is absorbed by the time the larva reaches 10 millimetres (0.39 in) is reached. Only the eyes are well pigmented (a camera works only with a black housing). The rest of the body nearly transparent, virtually invisible under water and natural luminance conditions.

The dorsal fin forms at 15 to 17 millimetres (0.59 to 0.67 in), the anal fin at about 30 millimetres (1.2 in)—the ventral fins are visible and the tail becomes well forked at 30 to 35 millimetres (1.4 in)—at about 40 millimetres (1.6 in) the larva begins to look like a herring.

The larvae are very slender and can easily be distinguished from all other young fish of their range by the location of the vent, which lies close to the base of the tail. But distinguishing clupeoids one from another in their early stages, requires critical examination, especially telling herring from sprats.

At one year they are about 10 centimetres (3.9 in) long, first spawning at 3 years.

Egg to juvenile

Transparent eggs with the yolk and eyes visible and one larva hatched.
Freshly hatched larva in a drop of water besides a match to demonstrate how tiny it is. The black eyes and the yolk are visible.
Young larvae in typical oblique swimming position, with remaining yolk still attached. Another larvae at the upper right is in the classical S-shape of the beginning phase of attacking a copepod.
Still transparent juvenile herring, about 38 mm long and 3 months old. Visible are the otoliths, the gut, the silvery swimbladder and the heart.

Ecology

Prey

Herrings are a prominent converter of zooplankton into fish, consuming copepods, arrow worms, pelagic amphipods, mysids and krill in the pelagic zone. Conversely, they are a central prey item or forage fish for higher trophic levels. The reasons for this success is still enigmatic; one speculation attributes their dominance to the huge, extremely fast cruising schools they inhabit.

Young herring feed on phytoplankton and as they mature they start to consume larger organisms. Adult herring feed on zooplankton, tiny animals that are found in oceanic surface waters, and small fish and fish larvae. Copepods and other tiny crustaceans are the most common zooplankton eaten by herring. During daylight herring stay in the safety of deep water, feeding at the surface only at night when there is less chance of being seen by predators. They swim along with their mouths open, filtering the plankton from the water as it passes through their gills. Young herring mostly hunt copepods individually, by means of "particulate feeding" or "raptorial feeding",[111] a feeding method also used by adult herring on larger prey items like krill. If prey concentrations reach very high levels, as in microlayers, at fronts or directly below the surface, herring become filter feeders, driving several meters forward with wide open mouth and far expanded opercula, then closing and cleaning the gill rakers for a few milliseconds.

Copepods, the primary zooplankton, are a major item on the forage fish menu. They are a group of small crustaceans found in ocean and freshwater habitats. Copepods are typically one millimetre (0.04 in) to two millimetres (0.08 in) long, with a teardrop shaped body. Some scientists say they form the largest animal biomass on the planet.[112] Copepods are very alert and evasive. They have large antennae (see photo below left). When they spread their antennae they can sense the pressure wave from an approaching fish and jump with great speed over a few centimeters. If copepod concentrations reach high levels, schooling herrings adopt a method called ram feeding. In the photo below, herring ram feed on a school of copepods. They swim with their mouth wide open and their opercula fully expanded.

Hunting copepods

This copepod has its antenna spread (click to enlarge). The antenna detects the pressure wave of an approaching fish.
Slow motion loop of a juvenile herring hunting copepods. The herring approaches from below and catches copepods individually. Note the copepod at the centre that escapes to the left.
School of herrings ram feeding on a school of copepods with opercula and mouth expanded. The fish swim in a grid with a distance of the jump length of their prey, as indicated by the animation at the right.
Animation showing how herrings hunting in a synchronised way can capture the very alert and evasive copepod

The fish swim in a grid where the distance between them is the same as the jump length of their prey, as indicated in the animation above right. In the animation, juvenile herring hunt the copepods in this synchronised way. The copepods sense with their antennae the pressure-wave of an approaching herring and react with a fast escape jump. The length of the jump is fairly constant. The fish align themselves in a grid with this characteristic jump length. A copepod can dart about 80 times before it tires. After a jump, it takes it 60 milliseconds to spread its antennae again, and this time delay becomes its undoing, as the almost endless stream of herrings allows a herring to eventually snap the copepod. A single juvenile herring could never catch a large copepod.[111]

Other pelagic prey eaten by herrings includes fish eggs, larval snails, diatoms by larvae below 20 millimetres (0.79 in), tintinnids by larvae below 45 millimetres (1.8 in), molluscan larvae, menhaden larvae, krill, mysids, smaller fishes, pteropods, annelids, Calanus, Acartia, Centropagidae and Meganyctiphanes norvegica.

Predators

Seabirds, like this European Herring Gull, attack herring schools from above
Humpback whales attack herring schools by lunging from below
See also: Predator avoidance in schooling fish, Bait ball

Predators of herring include seabirds, marine mammals such as dolphins, porpoises, orca, whales, seals and sea lions, predator fish such as sharks, dog fish, billfish, tuna, salmon, striped bass, cod and halibut, and fishermen.

The predators often operate cooperatively in groups, using different techniques to panic or herd a school of herrings into a tight bait ball. Different predators species then use different techniques to pick the fish off in the bait ball. The sailfish raises its sail to make it appear much larger. Swordfish charge at high speed through the bait balls, slashing with their swords to kill or stun prey. They then turn and return to consume their "catch". Thresher sharks use their long tails to stun the shoaling fish. These sharks compact their prey school by swimming around them and splashing the water with their tails, often in pairs or small groups. They then strike them sharply with the upper lobe of their tails to stun them.[113] Spinner sharks charge vertically through the school, spinning on their axis with their mouths open and snapping all around. The shark's momentum at the end of these spiraling runs often carries it into the air.[114][115]

Some whales lunge feed on bait balls.[116] Lunge feeding is an extreme feeding method, where the whale accelerates from below the bait ball to a high velocity and then opens its mouth to a large gape angle. This generates the water pressure required to expand its mouth and engulf and filter a huge amount of water and fish. Lunge feeding by the huge rorqual whales is said to be the largest biomechanical event on Earth.[117]

Fisheries

↑  Global commercial capture of herrings
in million tonnes reported by the FAO 1950–2010[118]
↑  All herrings 2010 [118]
Green = Clupea herrings
Commercial herring catch

Adult herring are harvested for their flesh and eggs, and they are often used as baitfish. The trade in herring is an important sector of many national economies. In Europe the fish has been called the "silver of the sea", and its trade has been so significant to many countries that it has been regarded as the most commercially important fishery in history.[119]

Environmental Defense have suggested that the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) fishery is one of the more environmentally responsible fisheries.[120]

As food

A kipper or split smoked herring

Herring has been a staple food source since at least 3000 B.C. There are numerous ways the fish is served and many regional recipes: eaten raw, fermented, pickled, or cured by other techniques.

Herring are very high in the long-chain Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA.[121] They are a source of vitamin D.

Water pollution influences the amount of herring that may be safely consumed. For example, large Baltic herring slightly exceeds recommended limits with respect to PCB and dioxin, although some sources point out that cancer-reducing effect of omega-3 fatty acids is statistically stronger than the cancer-causing effect of PCBs and dioxins.[122] The contaminant levels depend on the age of the fish which can be inferred from their size. Baltic herrings larger than 17 cm may be eaten twice a month, while herrings smaller than 17 cm can be eaten freely.[123] Mercury in fish also influences the amount of fish that women who are pregnant or planning to be pregnant within the next one or two years may safely eat.

History

Stone hedgebank constructed with a herringbone pattern

Notes

  1. ^ Cushing, David H (1975) Marine ecology and fisheries Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521099110.
  2. ^ Went, AEJ (1972) "The History of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Section B. Biology, 73: 351–360.doi:10.1017/S0080455X0000240X
  3. ^ a b Pauly, Daniel (2004) Darwin's Fishes: An Encyclopedia of Ichthyology, Ecology, and Evolution Page 109, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521827775.
  4. ^ "What's an oily fish?". Food Standards Agency. 2004-06-24. http://www.food.gov.uk/news/newsarchive/2004/jun/oilyfishdefinition. 
  5. ^ Herring Online Etymology Dictionary, Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  6. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Clupea bentincki" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  7. ^ Clupea bentincki (Norman, 1936) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  8. ^ "Clupea bentincki". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=615818. Retrieved April 2012. 
  9. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Clupea harengus" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  10. ^ Clupea harengus ((Linnaeus, 1758) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  11. ^ "Clupea harengus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=161722. Retrieved April 2012. 
  12. ^ Herdson D and Priede I (2011). "Xiphias gladius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/155123. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  13. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Clupea harengus" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  14. ^ Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes, 1847) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  15. ^ "Clupea pallasii". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=551209. Retrieved April 2012. 
  16. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Clupeoides papuensis" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  17. ^ "Clupeoides papuensis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=161750. Retrieved April 2012. 
  18. ^ Allen G (2010). "Clupeoides papuensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/4984. Retrieved April 2012. 
  19. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Opisthopterus macrops" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  20. ^ "Opisthopterus macrops". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=161750. Retrieved April 2012. 
  21. ^ Cotto A, Medina E and Bernal O (2010). "Opisthopterus macrops". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/183414. Retrieved April 2012. 
  22. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Opisthonema dovii" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  23. ^ "Opisthopterus dovii". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=161750. Retrieved April 2012. 
  24. ^ Iwamoto T, Eschmeyer W and Alvarado J (2010). "Opisthopterus dovii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/183922. Retrieved April 2012. 
  25. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Ilisha fuerthii" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  26. ^ "Ilisha fuerthii". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=161750. Retrieved April 2012. 
  27. ^ Iwamoto T, Eschmeyer W and Alvarado J (2010). "Ilisha fuerthii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/183757. Retrieved April 2012. 
  28. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Odontognathus panamensis" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
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References

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