endemic to a single nation
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range encompasses southern Ohio, southwestern West Virginia, much of Kentucky, western Virginia, and central and eastern Tennessee (Barbour 1971, Green and Pauley 1987, Conant and Collins 1991, Redmond and Scott 1996, Minton 2001). Elevational range extends to at least 477 meters in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Redmond and Scott 1996).
Comments: Habitat includes muddy and silt-laden areas, where it is most often found under logs or stones along shallow, sluggish streams, spring runs, floodplains, or seepage areas, usually but not always in wooded areas (Barbour 1971, Redmond and Scott 1996). Sometimes this salamander occurs in roadside ditches and other wet areas far from water (Barbour 1971), and may cross roads in larges numbers during wet weather (Green and Pauly 1987). Egg-deposition sites include the undersides of dead leaves in quiet pools (Green and Pauley 1987).
Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).
10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. This salamander is secretive and not readily found in large numbers, and it is not consistently obtained in sites where it has been previously recorded. In Kentucky, the species seems to be nowhere abundant, but it is "probably as common in the Inner Blue Grass as anywhere" (Barbour 1971).
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure
Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)
Comments: Current trend is not documented, but the population probably is relatively stable overall.
Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%
Comments: Over the long term, extent of occurrence likely has been relatively stable; population size, area of occurrence, and number/condition of occurrences probably have declined by less than 25%.
Degree of Threat: Low
Comments: No major threats have been identified.
Names and Taxonomy
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