Red brockets occur from southern Mexico to northern Argentina up to 2000m elevation.
Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )
Small deer (shoulder height 670-760mm) with chestnut-red body and legs, lighter chestnut belly, and grey head and neck. Males have short, unbranched antlers that are directed backwards. Measurements: Total: 1040-1340mm; Tail: 95-145mm; Hind Foot: 580-800mm; Ear: 86-105mm.
Range mass: 24 to 48 kg.
Habitat and Ecology
These small deer live in dense, moist forest and are found in mature and secondary rainforest, forest edges, gardens, and plantations. Their small size allows them to slip through dense vegetation, and they will readily swim to escape danger.
Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest
Red brocket deer are selective browsers and prefer to feed on fruit. When fruit is not available, leaves are the primary food source. During the wet season, fungimake up a large part of the diet.
Life History and Behavior
Status: captivity: 13.8 years.
Status: wild: 12.0 years.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
In Argentina, red brocket deer reproduce from August to October. In Suriname, does give birth over at least a seven month period, while in Guyana fawning occurs throughout the year. Does typically give birth to one young, but twinning is not uncommon. The gestation period in captivity averages 225 days. Does reach sexual maturity after 13 months, stags are mature at 12 months.
Average birth mass: 538.5 g.
Average gestation period: 225 days.
Average number of offspring: 1.3.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male: 365 days.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 395 days.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Mazama americana
There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank. Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species. See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
-- end --
Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mazama americana
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2000Data Deficient
- 1996Lower Risk/least concern(Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
CITES Appendix III in Guyana. Red brocket are widespread and common through much of their range. They are scarce in some areas and are threatened by hunting and deforestation.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: data deficient
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
They may do some damage to ornamental gardens and plantations planted on the forest edge.
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Red brocket are hunted extensively for food.
The red brocket (Mazama americana) is a species of brocket deer from forests in South America, ranging from northern Argentina to Colombia and the Guianas. It also occurs on the island of Trinidad in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (it also occurred on the island of Tobago until very recent historical times, but appears to have been extirpated there due to wanton poaching of wild game practiced on the island).
It formerly included the Central American red brocket (M. temama) and sometimes the Yucatan brown brocket (M. pandora) as subspecies. Considerable taxonomic confusion still exists for the populations remaining in the red brocket. Pending a solution to this, it has been evaluated as data deficient by the IUCN, though it, as presently defined, is the most widespread species of brocket. It is sympatric with the smaller Amazonian brown brocket over much of its range (the latter tends to have significantly lower population densities). The karyotype of the red brocket was initially described as having 2n = 68, FN = 74, and more recently as having 2n varying from 48 to 54 and FN varying from 54 to 56. This variability may indicate the presence of unrecognized species in the population.
Its body is reddish-brown in color, with a lighter grayish-brown head and neck, and partially blackish legs. The inner thighs and the underside of the tail are white. Fawns are spotted white and lack blackish to the legs. Only the adult male has antlers, and these are small and spike-like. This species is the largest of the brockets. The shoulder height is 67–80 centimetres (26–31 in) and the head and body length 105–144 centimetres (41–57 in). These deer typical weigh 24–48 kilograms (53–106 lb), but exceptional males may get as large as 65 kilograms (143 lb).
The red brocket browses on vegetation, preferring fruit when it is available. It is generally solitary and stays in dense jungles. When alarmed, the animal snorts or stomps its hoof.
- Durate, J.M.B., Vogliotti, A. & Barbanti, M. (2008). Mazama americana. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 7 November 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of data deficient.
- Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 637–722. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Alfred L. Gardner; J. Marcelo Aranda (April 1998). "The taxonomic status of the Yucatán brown brocket, Mazama pandora (Mammalia: Cervidae)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 111 (1): 1–14. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- Trolle, M., and L. H. Emmons (2004). A record of a dwarf brocket from lowland Madre de Dios, Peru. Deer Specialist Group Newsletter 19: 2–5
- Nowak, R. M. (eds) (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Emmons, L.H. (1997). Neotropical Rainforest Mammals, 2nd ed. University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-20721-8