Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Fairly little is known about the biology of this shy and seldom seen deer (1) (4). It is believed to be a solitary species that is active during the day and night, and feeds on leaves and fruits in the lower layers of the forest (1). Although almost nothing is known about reproduction in the dwarf brocket deer, it is likely to be similar to that of other brocket deer species. Brocket deer may reproduce year round, giving birth to a single calf after a long gestation period of 218 to 228 days. Young brocket deer mature rapidly, and females can breed by 11 months of age (3).
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Description

This small South American deer has, like other brocket deer, a rather stout body and slender limbs (4). Its coat is cinnamon to reddish-brown, with a buff-coloured throat, chest and inner legs, and the underside of the tail is white (5). The coat of young dwarf brocket deer is patterned with pale spots (5). Male brocket deer have small dagger-like antlers which, as they rarely measure more than 3.5 centimetres, barely protrude beyond the hairline (3).
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Distribution

Range Description

The species is known from southern Peru (Junin, Cuzco, and Puno) and northern Bolivia (La Paz and Cochabamba). Recent published accounts from Peru only reported its presence in the Cordillera of Vilcabamba (Emmons et al. 2001), in the S of Manu (Pacheco et al. 1993), and in Machu Picchu (ParksWatch 2004). An ongoing survey in Peru has found the species in eleven new localities, within and outside protected areas of the southeastern Andes. Recent surveys in Bolivia found the species in a number of locations within protected areas along the Andes from La Paz to Cochabamba. Extent of occurrence extends for 83,000 km2. Ongoing geographic surveys in Peru (Barrio in prep.) will define more precisely the actual range, but most probably it will not increase significantly its extent of occurrence.
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Range

Occurs in the Andes of southern Peru and northern Bolivia (1) (3).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Records from Bolivia include ‘ceja de selva’ elfin forest and grasslands (3,600 m), cloud montane forest ‘Yungas’ forests, and sub Andean forests (1,400 m), although local reports may extend that from 4,000 to 1,000 m (Rumiz et al. 2007). Records from Peru include the same vegetation types as in Bolivia, but without records in grasslands or over 3,500 m (Barrio in prep.). Details on its ecology are unknown, although it seems to be solitary, active at day as well at night, and expected to be a browser frugivore in the forest understorey. Oxalis sp. has been identified among plant species eaten by Mazama chunyi. Nothing is known of reproduction or life in captivity

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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The dwarf brocket deer is found in mountainous areas where it inhabits forest and grasslands, from 1,000 to 4,000 metres above sea level (1).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A4c; B2ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Rumiz, D.I. & Barrio, J.

Reviewer/s
Black, P. & Gonzalez, S. (Deer Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is considered to be Vulnerable due to an ongoing population decline, inferred to be greater than 30%, over a period of 3 generations (14 years) considering both the past (10 years) and future (4 years) estimated from loss of primary habitat. In addition small geographic range (area of occupancy <2,000 km²), severely fragmented populations (<10 locations), and continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat are severely reducing populations.

Criterion A (population reduction):
Threats to this species have not ceased and are not reversible. Population decline occurred in the past and is projected for the future. Habitat destruction has occurred for decades in the range of the dwarf deer. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) has declined in Bolivia and Peru (at least 40% of the expected range in Bolivia somehow degraded due to colonization, deforestation, and burning for agriculture and cattle grazing (see Threats)). An inferred population decline based on habitat reduction suggests assignment to the category of VU A4c.

Criterion B (geographic range size):
Area of occupancy (AOO) based on 60+ record points in Bolivia (with 2x2 km quadrats = 224 km², and with 4x4 km quadrats = 656 km² ) and 49 points in Peru (104 km² or 368 km²) is within the range size of the VU category (500-2,000 km²). Points may be grouped into 5-7 areas in Bolivia and 7-9 in Peru, but include some old collecting / report sites that are now densely settled and degraded. The small number of locations, restricted AOO, and the decline in habitat range support the status of Vulnerable.

History
  • 2007
    Vulnerable
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
  • 1994
    Indeterminate
    (Groombridge 1994)
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Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1).
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Population

Population
There are no estimates of abundance, population size or subpopulation ranges. Points from Bolivia may be grouped into 5 to 7 locations distributed in Madidi, Apolobamba, Cotapata and Carrasco, and marginally (needing confirmation) in Pilón Lajas, Isiboro Secure and Amboró. Points from Peru can be grouped in 7 to 9 locations distributed in Sandia, Carabaya, Quispicanchi, Paucartambo, Calca, Urubamba, La Convención, and Satipo, but include old collecting / report sites that are currently densely settled and degraded. Several sites of potentially good habitats recently surveyed in Peru showed its presence in most available habitat studied. Current distribution and abundance need to be further assessed. Decreasing population trend is inferred from habitat destruction.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat destruction occurs due to small scale cattle ranching and agriculture practiced by local communities through forest cutting and burning of montane grasslands and shrublands. Coca plantations may be the main cause of habitat destruction in some areas of La Paz and Cochabamba in Bolivia, and in Puno and Cuzco in Peru. Mining, road construction and colonization expand habitat loss. Hunting occurs as a source of meat and medicinal products at local level but needs assessment. A grid analysis of the conservation status of habitats within the extent of occurrence estimated in Bolivia suggest that 58,6% of the extent of occurrence is in good and very good status; and 41.4 % suffers degradation (25.5% regular, 15.9 % critical and very critical). On going assessments in Peru (Barrio in prep.) suggest a similar situation.
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Like other brocket deer, this dwarf species is hunted for its meat (1) (4), as well as for medicinal products. The dwarf brocket deer also faces threats from habitat destruction, with over 40 percent of the dwarf brocket deer's habitat being degraded by small scale cattle ranching and agriculture, coca plantations, mining and road construction (1).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This taxon needs to be locally and regionally recognized as a potentially threatened species; for this, more field surveys, ecological studies and educational and management work with communities focusing on habitat destruction and hunting are needed. Monitoring of use by local communities may yield more specimens and show its contribution to subsistence. Since its distribution range coincides with the Vilcabamba-Amboró Conservation Corridor, the species may become a symbol or conservation object for this initiative. In Peru, the species can be found in the appropriate habitat in Otishi and Manu National Parks, as well as in Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary. In Bolivia it has been found in six protected areas: Madidi, Apolobamba, Pilón Lajas, Cotapata, Isiboro Secure and Carrasco, but probably also occurs in Amboro.
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Conservation

The dwarf brocket deer occurs in a number of protected areas, including Manu National Park and the Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary in Peru, but further conservation action for this Vulnerable species is required. Field surveys, ecological studies and efforts to educate local communities on the effect of habitat destruction and unsustainable hunting have all been recommended (1).
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Wikipedia

Dwarf brocket

The Dwarf Brocket (Mazama chunyi), or Chunyi, is a small species of deer[2] native to the Andean highlands in western Bolivia and south-eastern Peru, where found in forest and páramo. Its pelage is redddish-brown with dark grey foreparts and neck. The underparts are lighter brown, and the muzzle short and thick. It weighs approximately 11 kilograms.[3]

A little studied species of brocket deer, the IUCN considers the Dwarf Brocket as Vulnerable.[1] Research has occurred in the forests of Bolivia, expanding known localities and modelling geographic distribution; while as much as 40% of the habitat was degraded or fragmented, the rest showed good conservation. This led to the recommendation of treating it as Vulnerable.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rumiz, D.I. & Barrio, J. (2008). Mazama chunyi. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 10 April 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable.
  2. ^ Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 637–722. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  3. ^ Trolle, Mogens; Louise H. Emmons. "A record of a dwarf brocket from lowland Madre de Dios, Peru". Amazon Conservation Association. Archived from the original on 2007-06-07. Retrieved 2007-06-08. 
  4. ^ Rumiz, D. I.; E. Pardo; C.F. Eulert; R. Arispe; R.B. Wallace; H. Gómez; B. Ríos-Uzeda (April 2007). "New records and a status assessment of a rare dwarf brocket deer from the montane forests of Bolivia". Journal of Zoology 271 (4): 428–436. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00226.x. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
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