The southern limit of M. rufina is the Huacabamba valley which also acts as a biogeographical barrier for other mammal species (Hershkovitz 1959, 1982, Eisenberg and Redford 1999). The northern limit of their distribution is not well known.
Habitat and Ecology
Along its distribution, M. rufina shares the same habitat with the northern pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) (Hershkovitz 1982); the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) (Lizcano et al. 2002); and the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) (Peyton 1999). Details of its ecology are unknown, although it seems to be solitary, active by day as well as at night, and expected to be a browser/frugivore in the forest understorey. They are shy and secretive animals, rarely seen because of their nocturnal habits. They live either alone or in pairs and normally within a small territory. They usually defecate in latrines probably located at the boundaries of their territories.
The Brocket deer is a frequent visitor of salt licks (Lizcano and Cavelier 2004). In the Central Andes of Colombia its diet is composed of 40 species of plants mainly herbs, from which it prefers plants of Solanum spp. and Begonia umbellata (Lizcano 2006). They rely on their small size and knowledge of the habitat in which they live to escape predators, diving into thick vegetation when detected. Occasionally they present freezing behavior before escaping. Nothing is known of reproduction or life in captivity. Oxalis sp. has been identified among plant species eaten by Mazama rufina. No research has been conducted to study the home range.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Mazama rufina
There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank. Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species. See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen. Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Mazama rufina
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Criteria A & C: Declining population
Population decline occurred in the past and is projected for the future. Threats to this species have not ceased and are not reversible. An inferred population decline based on habitat reduction suggests assignment to the category of VU A4c. Additionally an estimated continuing decline in habitat range of at least 10% of within 10 years or three generations, support the status of VU C1.
Criterion B: Geographic range size
Extent of occurrence (EOO), based on a habitat model of museum records in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru shows a habitat reduction of 47 % of their original habitat. Most of the 30 % reduction happened in the last ten years, at least in Colombia, as result of severe deforestation and agriculture. Habitat destruction has occurred for decades in the range of the Dwarf Red Brocket. At least 50% of the expected range in Colombia is somehow degraded due to colonization, deforestation, and burning for coffee agriculture and cattle grazing (see Threats).
Little red brocket
The Little Red Brocket (Mazama rufina), also known as the Ecuador Red Brocket, is a small, little-studied deer native to the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru, where found in forest and páramo at altitudes between 1,400 and 3,600 metres (4,600 and 11,800 ft). It is one of the smallest brocket deer. The coat is reddish, and the legs and crown are blackish. As recently as 1999, some authorities included both the Pygmy Brocket (M. nana) and Merida Brocket (M. bricenii) as subspecies of the Little Red Brocket.
- Lizcano, D. & Alvarez, S.J. (2008). Mazama rufina. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 10 June 2007. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable.
- Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 637–722. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Trolle, M., and L. H. Emmons (2004). A record of a dwarf brocket from lowland Madre de Dios, Peru. Deer Specialist Group Newsletter 19: 2-5
- Nowak, R. M. (eds) (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Salazar, Ernesto (2003). "Historie del Ecuador: Los primeros habitantes". La Hora (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2008-04-08. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
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