Overview

Distribution

Range Description

The Siberian roe deer has a very wide distribution in the Palaearctic. It is widely distributed in continental Asia and parts of Eastern Europe (Danilkin 1995), from the Khoper and Don River bend to the Ural Mountains and across southern Siberia. It is found through northern Mongolia (including Navchvandan Mountain in south-eastern parts of Eastern Mongolia, Hangai Mountain Range, Darkhad in Hövsgöl Mountain Range, Hentii Mountain Range, Ikh Hyangan Mountain Range and north-eastern Mongol Altai Mountain Range) west to the coastlines of the sea of Japan, and the Yellow Sea, including the Korean Peninsula (Danilkin 1995). Its geographic range branches out towards the south at the West Siberian Plain down to Lake Balkhash, and from there expanding back to the east well into Kazakhstan without reaching the Aral Sea. Also, it occurs from Manchuria into northern and central China, to the western half of the left margin of the Yang Tze river, into the eastern Tibetan Region (Bannikov, 1954; Sokolov et al., 1982; Dulamtseren et al., 1989). Records from further south as far as northeastern Myanmar require confirmation. It formerly extended as far west and eastern Ukraine, and there is still an isolated population on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains. It also occurs on Cheju Island in South Korea. It has been recorded at altitudes from sea-level up to 3,300 m asl.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Type for Capreolus pygargus
Catalog Number: USNM 155220
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Female;
Preparation: Skin; Skull; Skeleton
Collector(s): A. Sowerby
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Ching-Yang-Fu, 30 Miles East, Gansu, China, Asia
Elevation (m): 1372
  • Type: Miller, G. S. 1911 Nov 28. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 24: 231.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species inhabits different types of deciduous and mixed forests and forest-steppes, where it tends to exploit areas with an abundance of grass cover on which it grazes (Danilkin 1995). In general terms it is most common in the forest-steppe belt of central Russia (Danilkin et al. 2000, Korytin et al. 2002), where it reaches high population densities of up to 12 individuals per 100 ha in tallgrass meadows and floodplains (Danilkin 1995). It is shy, and most active at night, and often uses salt-licks. In mountains it is found up to 3,300 m asl.

It makes seasonal movements. It is solitary in summer (females stay with their young), but in winter forms mixed groups up to 20-30 individuals. During seasonal movements, group size increases up to 500 individuals. In the province of Amur (Russian Federation), the species migrates every year from winter to summer grounds, for up to 200 km, always following the same routes (Danilkin et al. 1995).

During heat males are territorial. It is polygamous, but does not form harems. Mating occurs from mid-July to mid-September. Young are born in May-June; the females give birth to one or two calves (rarely up to four). Gestation is six to ten months, usually with a lag phase. Maturity is reached by 13 months, and adults live 10-12 years (Danilkin 1995).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Observations: Little is known about the longevity of these animals, but one captive specimen lived 12.1 years (Richard Weigl 2005).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Capreolus pygargus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Gonzalez, T. & Tsytsulina, K.

Reviewer/s
Black, P.A. & Gonzalez, S. (Deer Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Although the species is widespread and remains common in parts of its range (Danilkin 1995, Danilkin et al. 2000, Korytin et al. 2002), it is in decline in many places due to insufficient enforcement of the currently existing laws regarding hunting. However, its rate of decline is not believed to be sufficient to trigger listing in a more threatened category, and so it is retained in Least Concern.
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Population

Population
Although it is generally considered to be common, it is in delcine in many places because of over-hunting. Danilkin (1995) estimated the total world population to be "about 1 million" individuals, though this represents a considerable decline, as during the nineteenh century, 500,000 were killed annually in Russia. Nevertheless, in the 1990s, healthy populations appeared to be common in China and Russia (Danilkin 1995, Otaishi and Gao 1990). Sheng and Ohtaishi (1993) estimated the total population living in China at the time in "about 500,000" individuals.

The species has almost certainly declined since then due to hunting (Danilkin 1995). For example, in the Amur region of Russia, the population was estimated to be 134,870 individuals in 1991, but it has been in continuous decline since then due to unauthorized hunting and fires (Toushkin, 2007). The situation could be more even more critical in the Korean Peninsula where trapping, overhunting and the opening of new land to logging operations may be having a negative effect on the species (Won and Smith 1999). In 1985, the population size throughout Mongolia was estimated as between 70,000 and 89,000, though in the same year density estimates of 4-5 individuals over 1,000 ha were made in Khovsgol, with a total population estimate for this region of 250,000 animals (Sukhbat and Shagdarjav, 1990). Over the last 10 years, however, the species has largely disappeared from the Bogd Uul mountain region, with only possible sightings in 2004. In the most recent population estimate conducted was in the Nomrog Special Protected Area, where 298 were found (K. Olson pers. comm.). No data seem to be currently available on the status of this species in Kazakhstan.

Population density in Russia depends on vegetation type. It is most abundant in light oak and cedar forests, and is not found in fir forests. In the Sikhote-Alin State Reserve, population density varies from 0.2 to 1.3 individuals per km² (Myslenkov 1990).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Illegal hunting for meat and antlers, largely for local use, has eradicated this species from many areas of Russia. In the past, the implementation of proactive law enforcement and successful re-introduction programmes corrected this (Danilkin 1995). Recent data suggest that poaching is again on the rise in Russia and Kazakhstan, though there is currently only limited information on it effects on the populations of Capreolus pygargus. It is of particular concern in relation to the isolated population in the CIS-Caucasus. Poaching is also known to be a serious problem in China. The status of the species on the Korean Peninsula is also problematic, as deforestation and poaching seem to be depleting numbers in many areas (Won and Smith 1999). Although not presently a threat through much of its Russian range, habitat degradation through grazing by increasing numbers of livestock and human disturbance, associated with resource extraction, could constitute a potential future threat. At a smaller scale, in the Amur Region several populations were lost by the formation of the Zeya and Burey reservoirs.

Severe winter weather and natural predation are liable to have at times a strong impact on the survival or presence of some populations in certain regions (Danilkin 1995, Danilkin et al. 2000), though this is not a major concern for the species overall.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Russia has an extensive network of protected areas in the form of National Natural Parks, Special Purpose Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Nature Monuments and the Siberian roe deer is an abundant species in many of them (Danilkin et al. 2000; Korytin et al. 2002). Trophy and commercial hunting are allowed in some of these areas under a license system; the allocation of harvesting quotas is based on periodic estimates of the population size of each species (Danilkin et al. 2000, Korytin et al. 2002). Under this system 27,300 specimens were legally harvested within the whole Russian territory, during the 1996-7 hunting season (National CBD Reports 2005). However, the amount of illegal hunting beyond this is not known, but could be much larger. More effective management of hunting is needed. The majority of the majority of the isolated Cis-caucasian population inhabits protected areas.

A similar hunting management system exists in China; it has been reported that several thousand roe deer are commercially harvested in Heilongjiang Province every year (Ohtaishi and Gao 1990). Mongolia has a similar network of protected areas compared to Russia, covering 20.6 millions of hectareas, or more than 13% of the Mongolian territory. Roe deer is present in many of them (Ministry for Nature and Environment 1996). In Mongolia, hunting is permitted between September 1st and December 1st (MNE, 2005). Trophy hunters can purchase hunting licenses, from which $550 USD is allocated to the government (MNE, 2005). Enforcement of wildlife protection laws, inside and outside protected areas, is nonetheless deficient.

In South Korea, this species is only abundant in strictly protected areas like Cheju Island (Won and Smith 1999). Roe deer is classed as a game species under the current hunting laws, and licensed hunters are allowed to bag a maximum of three individuals per hunting season. The long term effects that the Wildlife Protection Act (in effect from February 2005) will have on the conservation status of this species needs to be monitored.

In summary, the main conservation measures needed involve:
(1) Effective enforcement of hunting regulations. (2) Maintanance of suitable habitats, especially in riparian areas.
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Wikipedia

Siberian roe deer

The Siberian roe deer or eastern roe deer, Capreolus pygargus, is a species of roe deer found in northeastern Asia. In addition to Siberia and Mongolia, it is found in Kazakhstan, the Tian Shan Mountains, eastern Tibet, the Korean Peninsula, and northeastern China (Manchuria). In addition, it may have become naturalized in England for a short period in the early 20th century as an escapee from Woburn, but were exterminated by 1945.[3][4]

Taxonomy[edit]

The Siberian roe deer was once considered as the same species as the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), but it is now considered to be separate.[5] It has larger antlers with more branches than those of European roe deer. The Siberian species can be found across central Asia and in the Caucasus Mountains and weighs up to 59 kg (130 lb). The Siberian and European roe deer meet at the Caucasus Mountains with the Siberian roe deer occupying the northern flank, and the European roe deer occupying the southern flank, Asia Minor, and parts of northwestern Iran. Roe deer can jump distances up to 15 m (49 ft), and generally live about 8–12 years, with a maximum of about 18 years.

The two subspecies of Siberian roe deer are C. p. pygargus and C. p. tianshanicus.

Description[edit]

The Siberian roe deer is a moderately sized metacarpalian deer, with a long neck and large ears. In winter the northern populations exhibit light gray coloring, but their southern counterparts are grayish brown and ochraceous.[6] The belly is creamy and the caudal patch is white. In the summer, their coloring is reddish. Young have a spotted coat.[7] Males are larger and have three-tined antlers, widely spaced and slanting upward, which are shed in the autumn or early winter and begin to regrow shortly thereafter.[8]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Siberian roe deer are found within the temperate zone of eastern Europe and Asia. Fossil records show their territory once stretched to the northern Caucasus.[9] In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, their range was diminished by overhunting in eastern Europe, northern Kazakhstan, western Siberia, and northern regions of eastern Siberia. Due to a division in their range, two morphologically different subspecies resulted (Ural and Siberia).[7]

The Siberian roe deer has a light, slender build adapted for tall, dense grass.[6] They live in forest and steppe habitats and develop high densities in tall-grass meadows and floodplains.[10] They are adapted to severe weather extremes.[11]

Diet[edit]

The diet of the Siberian roe deer consists of over 600 species of plants – mostly herbaceous dicotyledons (58%), monocotyledons (16%), and woody species (22%).[12] In winter, without proper sustenance, they have a lowered metabolic rate.[13] In summer, their dietary need for sodium necessitates visits to natural salt deposits.[14] Water is usually obtained through moisture-rich foods as opposed to directly from source.[15]

Behavior[edit]

Mating occurs in August and September, and female roe deer are the only ungulates to undergo embryonic diapause.[16][17] Embryonic implantation takes place in January and gestation lasts 280–300 days.[18][19][20] Females usually have two young at a time, which are weaned after 4–5 months.[20][21] Females reach sexual maturity in their first year of age but usually do not breed until their second. Males usually mate in their third year of life.[16][18][20] The life-span the Siberian roe deer does not usually exceed 10 years.[22]

Males mark their territory with olfactory marks, using secretion glands on the head skin, which they rub against trees, shrubs, and high grasses, or with visual marks, by fraying trees with their antlers. Vocal signals are also a form of communication in Siberian roe deer. They have six signals: squeaking or whistling, rasping, barking, whining, screaming, and nonvocal sounds.[23]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ T. Gonzalez & K. Tsytsulina (2008). "Capreolus pygargus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Capreolus pygargus (Pallas, 1771)". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  3. ^ William Ling Taylor (1939). "The distribution of wild deer in England and Wales". Journal of Animal Ecology 8 (1): 6–9. JSTOR 1249. 
  4. ^ Long (2003), p. 451
  5. ^ Peter Grubb (2005). "Artiodactyla: Cervidae: Capreolinae". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 644–655. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  6. ^ a b Flerov (1952)
  7. ^ a b Heptner et al. (1961)
  8. ^ Smirnov (1978)
  9. ^ Y. L. Korotkevich & A. A. Danilkin. "Phylogeny, evolution and systematics". pp. 8–21  Missing or empty |title= (help) in Sokolov (1992).
  10. ^ J. Zejda & A. A. Danilkin. "Environment". pp. 86–100  Missing or empty |title= (help) in Sokolov (1992).
  11. ^ A. A. Danilkin. "Range". pp. 64–85  Missing or empty |title= (help) in Sokolov (1992).
  12. ^ V. Holisova, R. Obrtel, I. Kozena & A. A. Danilkin. "Feeding". pp. 124–139  Missing or empty |title= (help) in Sokolov (1992).
  13. ^ Kholdova (1986)
  14. ^ Fetisov (1953)
  15. ^ A. A. Danilkin & S. Dulamtseren (1981). "The roe deer in Mongolia". Okhota I okhotnichie khozyaistvo (in Russian) 3: 44–45. 
  16. ^ a b V. B. Pole (1973). "Breeding of the roe deer in Kazakhstan". Proceedings of the Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Zoology (in Russian) 34: 135–144. 
  17. ^ R. J. Aitken (1981). "Aspects of delayed implantation in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)". Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 29: 83–95. PMID 7014871. 
  18. ^ a b O. E. Tsaplyuk (1977). "Age-related and seasonal peculiarities of the reproduction biology of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) of Kazakhstan". Zoologicheskii Zhurnal (in Russian with English summary) 56: 611–618. 
  19. ^ V. S. Gromov (1986). The morphological variability, behavior and systematics of the roe deer (Ph.D. thesis) (in Russian). Moscow. 
  20. ^ a b c C. Stubbe & A. A. Danilkin. "Breeding". pp. 140–159  Missing or empty |title= (help) in Sokolov (1992).
  21. ^ V. E. Sokolov, V. S. Gromov & A. A. Danilkin (1985). "The ontogeny of Siberian roe deer (Capreolus capreolus pygargus) behavior". Zoologicheskii Zhurnal (in Russian with English summary) 64: 915–926. 
  22. ^ A. A. Danilkin. "Populations structure". pp. 160–184  Missing or empty |title= (help) in Sokolov (1992).
  23. ^ Sokolov & Danilkin (1981)

References[edit]

  • Fetisov, A. S. (1953). Roe deer in East Siberia (in Russian). Irkutsk: Regional Publishing House. 
  • Flerov, K. K. (1952). "The genera Moschus and Cervus". Fauna of the USSR. Mammals. Moscow-Leningrad: USSR Academy of Science Publishers. 
  • Heptner, V. G., A. A. Nastmovich & A. G. Gannikov (1961). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Artiodactyles and Perissodactlyes (in Russian). Moscow: Vysshaja Shkola Publishers. 
  • Kholodova, M. V. (1986). Seasonal variations of food requirements in some ungulates. IV Congress of the All-Union Theriological Society (in Russian) 1. Moscow. pp. 367–368. 
  • Long, John L. (2003). "Artiodactyla". Introduced Mammals of the World: their History, Distribution and Influence. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 361–534. ISBN 9780643099166. 
  • M. N. Smirnov (1978). Roe Deer in western Trans-Baikal Area (in Russian). Novosibirsk: Nauka Publishers. 
  • Sokolov, V. E., ed. (1992). European and Siberian roe deer (in Russian). Moscow: Nauka Publishers. 
  • Sokolov, V. E. & A. A. Danilkin (1981). The Siberian roe deer (in Russian). Moscow: Nauka Publishers. 
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