Catalog Number: USNM 155220
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Preparation: Skin; Skull; Skeleton
Collector(s): A. Sowerby
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Ching-Yang-Fu, 30 Miles East, Gansu, China, Asia
Elevation (m): 1372
- Type: Miller, G. S. 1911 Nov 28. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 24: 231.
Habitat and Ecology
It makes seasonal movements. It is solitary in summer (females stay with their young), but in winter forms mixed groups up to 20-30 individuals. During seasonal movements, group size increases up to 500 individuals. In the province of Amur (Russian Federation), the species migrates every year from winter to summer grounds, for up to 200 km, always following the same routes (Danilkin et al. 1995).
During heat males are territorial. It is polygamous, but does not form harems. Mating occurs from mid-July to mid-September. Young are born in May-June; the females give birth to one or two calves (rarely up to four). Gestation is six to ten months, usually with a lag phase. Maturity is reached by 13 months, and adults live 10-12 years (Danilkin 1995).
Life History and Behavior
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Capreolus pygargus
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1996Lower Risk/least concern
The species has almost certainly declined since then due to hunting (Danilkin 1995). For example, in the Amur region of Russia, the population was estimated to be 134,870 individuals in 1991, but it has been in continuous decline since then due to unauthorized hunting and fires (Toushkin, 2007). The situation could be more even more critical in the Korean Peninsula where trapping, overhunting and the opening of new land to logging operations may be having a negative effect on the species (Won and Smith 1999). In 1985, the population size throughout Mongolia was estimated as between 70,000 and 89,000, though in the same year density estimates of 4-5 individuals over 1,000 ha were made in Khovsgol, with a total population estimate for this region of 250,000 animals (Sukhbat and Shagdarjav, 1990). Over the last 10 years, however, the species has largely disappeared from the Bogd Uul mountain region, with only possible sightings in 2004. In the most recent population estimate conducted was in the Nomrog Special Protected Area, where 298 were found (K. Olson pers. comm.). No data seem to be currently available on the status of this species in Kazakhstan.
Population density in Russia depends on vegetation type. It is most abundant in light oak and cedar forests, and is not found in fir forests. In the Sikhote-Alin State Reserve, population density varies from 0.2 to 1.3 individuals per km² (Myslenkov 1990).
Severe winter weather and natural predation are liable to have at times a strong impact on the survival or presence of some populations in certain regions (Danilkin 1995, Danilkin et al. 2000), though this is not a major concern for the species overall.
A similar hunting management system exists in China; it has been reported that several thousand roe deer are commercially harvested in Heilongjiang Province every year (Ohtaishi and Gao 1990). Mongolia has a similar network of protected areas compared to Russia, covering 20.6 millions of hectareas, or more than 13% of the Mongolian territory. Roe deer is present in many of them (Ministry for Nature and Environment 1996). In Mongolia, hunting is permitted between September 1st and December 1st (MNE, 2005). Trophy hunters can purchase hunting licenses, from which $550 USD is allocated to the government (MNE, 2005). Enforcement of wildlife protection laws, inside and outside protected areas, is nonetheless deficient.
In South Korea, this species is only abundant in strictly protected areas like Cheju Island (Won and Smith 1999). Roe deer is classed as a game species under the current hunting laws, and licensed hunters are allowed to bag a maximum of three individuals per hunting season. The long term effects that the Wildlife Protection Act (in effect from February 2005) will have on the conservation status of this species needs to be monitored.
In summary, the main conservation measures needed involve:
(1) Effective enforcement of hunting regulations. (2) Maintanance of suitable habitats, especially in riparian areas.
Siberian roe deer
Capreolus pygargus, also known as the Siberian roe deer or eastern roe deer, is a species of roe deer found in northeastern Asia. In addition to Siberia and Mongolia, it is found in Kazakhstan, the Tian Shan Mountains, Eastern Tibet, the Korean peninsula, and northeastern China (Manchuria). In addition, it may have become naturalized in England for a short period in the early 20th century as an escapee from Woburn but were exterminated by 1945.
The Siberian roe deer was once considered as the same species as the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), but it is now considered to be separate. It has larger antlers with more branches than those of European roe deer. The Siberian species can be found across central Asia and in the Caucasus Mountains and weighs up to 59 kilograms (130 lb). The Siberian and European roe deer meet at the Caucasus Mountains with the Siberian roe deer occupying the northern flank, and the European roe deer occupying the southern flank, Asia Minor, and parts of north-western Iran. Roe deer can jump distances up to 15 metres (49 ft), and generally live about 8–12 years, with a maximum of about 14–18 years.
Siberian roe deer are moderately sized metacarpalian deer, with a long neck and large ears. In winter their northern counterparts exhibit light gray coloring, but their southern counterparts are grayish brown and ochraceous. The belly is creamy and the caudal patch is white. In the summer their coloring is reddish. Young have a spotted coat. Males are larger and have three-tined antlers, widely spaced and slanting upward which are shed in the autumn or early winter and begin to re-grow shortly thereafter.
Distribution and habitat 
Siberian roe deer are found within the temperate zone of eastern Europe and Asia. Fossil records show their territory once stretched to the northern Caucasus. In the late 19th and early 20th century their range was diminished by overhunting in eastern Europe, northern Kazakhstan, western Siberia, and northern regions of eastern Siberia. Due to a division in their range, two morphologically different subspecies resulted (Ural and Siberia).
The Siberian roe deer has a light, slender build adapted for tall, dense grass. They live in forest and steppe habitat and develop high densities in tall-grass meadows and floodplains. They are adapted to severe weather extremes.
The diet of the Siberian roe deer consists of over 600 species of plant – mostly herbaceous dicotyledons (58%), monocotyledons (16%) and woody species (22%). In winter, without proper sustenance, they have a lowered metabolic rate. In summer, their dietary need for sodium necessitates visits to natural salt deposits. Water is usually obtained through moisture-rich foods as opposed to directly from source.
Mating occurs in August and September, and female roe deer are the only ungulates to undergo embryonic diapause. Embryonic implantation takes place in January and gestation lasts 280–300 days. Females usually have two young at a time, which are weaned after 4–5 months. Females reach sexual maturity in their first year of age but usually do not breed until their second. Males usually mate in their third year of life. The life-span the Siberian roe deer does not usually exceed 10 years.
Males mark their territory with olfactory marks, using secretion glands on the head skin, which they rub against trees, shrubs, and high grasses, or with visual marks, by fraying trees with their antlers. Vocal signals are also a form of communication in Siberian roe deer. They have six signals: squeaking or whistling, rasping, barking, whining, screaming, and non-vocal sounds.
See also 
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- T. Gonzalez & K. Tsytsulina (2008). "Capreolus pygargus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- "Capreolus pygargus (Pallas, 1771)". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- William Ling Taylor (1939). "The distribution of wild deer in England and Wales". Journal of Animal Ecology 8 (1): 6–9. JSTOR 1249.
- Long (2003), p. 451
- Peter Grubb (2005). "Artiodactyla: Cervidae: Capreolinae". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 644–655. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Flerov (1952)
- Heptner et al. (1961)
- Smirnov (1978)
- Y. L. Korotkevich & A. A. Danilkin. "Phylogeny, evolution and systematics". pp. 8–21 in Sokolov (1992).
- J. Zejda & A. A. Danilkin. "Environment". pp. 86–100 in Sokolov (1992).
- A. A. Danilkin. "Range". pp. 64–85 in Sokolov (1992).
- V. Holisova, R. Obrtel, I. Kozena & A. A. Danilkin. "Feeding". pp. 124–139 in Sokolov (1992).
- Kholdova (1986)
- Fetisov (1953)
- A. A. Danilkin & S. Dulamtseren (1981). "The roe deer in Mongolia". Okhota I okhotnichie khozyaistvo (in Russian) 3: 44–45.
- V. B. Pole (1973). "Breeding of the roe deer in Kazakhstan". Proceedings of the Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Zoology (in Russian) 34: 135–144.
- R. J. Aitken (1981). "Aspects of delayed implantation in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)". Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 29: 83–95. PMID 7014871.
- O. E. Tsaplyuk (1977). "Age-related and seasonal peculiarities of the reproduction biology of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) of Kazakhstan". Zoologicheskii Zhurnal (in Russian with English summary) 56: 611–618.
- V. S. Gromov (1986) (in Russian). The morphological variability, behavior and systematics of the roe deer (Ph.D. thesis). Moscow.
- C. Stubbe & A. A. Danilkin. "Breeding". pp. 140–159 in Sokolov (1992).
- V. E. Sokolov, V. S. Gromov & A. A. Danilkin (1985). "The ontogeny of Siberian roe deer (Capreolus capreolus pygargus) behavior". Zoologicheskii Zhurnal (in Russian with English summary) 64: 915–926.
- A. A. Danilkin. "Populations structure". pp. 160–184 in Sokolov (1992).
- Sokolov & Danilkin (1981)
- Fetisov, A. S. (1953). Roe deer in East Siberia (in Russian). Irkutsk: Regional Publishing House.
- Flerov, K. K. (1952). "The genera Moschus and Cervus". Fauna of the USSR. Mammals. Moscow-Leningrad: USSR Academy of Science Publishers.
- Heptner, V. G., A. A. Nastmovich & A. G. Gannikov (1961). Mammals of the Soviet Union. Artiodactyles and Perissodactlyes (in Russian). Moscow: Vysshaja Shkola Publishers.
- Kholodova, M. V. (1986). Seasonal variations of food requirements in some ungulates. IV Congress of the All-Union Theriological Society (in Russian) 1. Moscow. pp. 367–368.
- Long, John L. (2003). "Artiodactyla". Introduced Mammals of the World: their History, Distribution and Influence. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 361–534. ISBN 9780643099166.
- M. N. Smirnov (1978). Roe Deer in western Trans-Baikal Area (in Russian). Novosibirsk: Nauka Publishers.
- Sokolov, V. E., ed. (1992). European and Siberian roe deer (in Russian). Moscow: Nauka Publishers.
- Sokolov, V. E. & A. A. Danilkin (1981). The Siberian roe deer (in Russian). Moscow: Nauka Publishers.
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