Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The biology of Peale's dolphin is not well known, as it seldom strands, few specimens have been examined, and the species has not been kept in captivity (2) (4) (6). Most feeding appears to occur in kelp beds (4) (8), where small groups of around 5 to 30 individuals are thought to hunt squid, octopus, and sometimes shrimps (2) (4) (6) (9). Larger groups have also been observed (2) (4), and may hunt cooperatively in more open water, 'herding' larger shoals of fish (4) (8). Peale's dolphin is often seen associating with other dolphin species, particularly Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii), and frequently bow-rides, producing loud splashes and slaps when leaping and swimming at the surface (2) (4) (6). Little information is available on reproduction in this species, but calves have been reported from spring to autumn (October to April) (2) (4). In general, Lagenorhynchus species give birth to a single young after a gestation period of around 10 to 12 months, with the young measuring around one metre at birth (2) (10). Migration in Peale's dolphin is not well understood, but individuals around southern Tierra del Fuego appear to move inshore in the summer, possibly following fish migrations (4) (11).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

A fairly robust dolphin with a short, rounded snout, Peale's dolphin is greyish black above and mostly white below. A curved, light grey flank patch runs from behind the dorsal fin to the tail, while a second light grey patch on the chest runs from the eye to the middle of the body. This second patch is separated from the white belly by a well-defined black line, which loops above a small white patch in the 'armpit', under the flipper (2) (4) (5) (6). The flippers and dorsal fin are dark, and the dorsal fin is sickle-shaped, with a light grey trailing edge. The face, snout, melon and most of the chin are dark grey-black, which, together with the black line below the chest patch, readily distinguishes Peale's dolphin from similar species such as the dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus). (2) (4) (6). Young Peale's dolphins are lighter grey than adults, with less clear definition between the chest and flank patches (2) (4).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

Peale's dolphins are apparently confined to South America, from the southern tip to about the latitudes of Santiago, Chile (33°S), and northern Argentina (38°S) (Goodall et al. 1997a; Brownell et al. 1999; Goodall 2002). The distribution may extend south well into Drake Passage. They are regularly seen around the Falkland Islands.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Geographic Range

Lagenorynchus australis lives mostly in the mildly cold and temperate waters off of South America and the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean. One sighting has been reported near the Cook Islands also.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native )

  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walkers Mammals of the World, Sixth ediition. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Reeder, D., D. Wilson. 1993. Mammal Species of the World ed. 2. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Peale's dolphin has a somewhat restricted range, being found only around the southern tip of South America, as far north as northern Argentina and Santiago, Chile. The species is commonly seen around the Falkland Islands and over Burdwood Bank, south of the Falkland Islands (2) (4) (6) (7). Possible sightings of Peale's dolphins have also been reported from tropical waters, at Palmerston Atoll in the South Pacific, but this is considered to be outside the normal range and may even represent a new, undescribed species (2) (4) (6).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

L. australis has many distinguishing physical characteristics. Some of these include a torpedo shaped body, a dark gray back, a white belly, a light gray area on flanks that extends from behind to the anus and a skinny white band that begins behind the dorsal fin and gets wider as it extends backwards. This latter feature is termed the “tail stock”.

L. australis has double black rings around both eyes and that extend forward to the nose. A final distinguishing feature that separates this species from other similar looking species is a circular patch of varying gray colors that is right on the thoracic area of the back.

The young of L. australis tend to look the same as the adults, but are much lighter in color. They become darker as they mature.

The teeth of L. australis seem to be variable. The maximum number on each upper jaw is thirty-seven and thirty-six on each lower jaw. Many teeth are hidden in the gums of the mouth.

The pectoral fin length is approximately 30 cm, and the dorsal fin can be up to 50 cm in height. The tail fluke is generally 30-60 cm wide, and the beak is up to 5 cm in length.

These animals may weigh up to 115 kg.

Average mass: 115 kg.

Range length: 150 to 310 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

  • MacDonald, D. 1984. Encyclopedia of Mammals. N.Y.: Facts on File Publications.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Type for Lagenorhynchus australis (Peale, 1848)
Catalog Number: USNM A3887
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals
Sex/Stage: Unknown;
Preparation: Skull
Collector(s): Collector Unknown
Locality: Locality Unknown, Locality Unknown, Locality Unknown
  • Type: Cope, E. D. 1866. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 18: 294.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Mammals

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

coastal, in bays, around islands and over continental shelf.
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Peale’s Dolphin occupies two major habitats: open, wave-washed coasts over shallow continental shelves to the north; and deep, protected bays and channels to the south and west. In the channels, this is an 'entrance animal', associated with the rocky coasts and riptides at the openings to fjords, where the highest water temperature recorded was 14.7°C. Peale's dolphins show a high degree of association with kelp beds (Macrocystis pyrifera), especially in the channel regions (Viddi and Lescrauwaet 2005). They swim and feed within, inshore and offshore of the kelp forests, using natural channels for movement. Over much of its range Peale's dolphin is sympatric with the dusky dolphin although their usages of habitats are slightly different. These two species are often difficult to differentiate at sea (Goodall et al. 1997b; de Haro and Iniguez 1997). Throughout the northern part of their range, they inhabit the waters of the wide continental shelf off Argentina and the narrower shelf off Chile. Although Peale's dolphins have been observed in waters at least 300 m deep, they appear to prefer shallower coastal waters (Brownell et al. 1999).

Very little is known about the biology of this species. Peale’s dolphins associate with other cetacean species, especially Commerson’s dolphins. Calves have been reported from spring through autumn. The few stomachs that have been examined contained mostly demersal fish, octopus, and squid species that occur in shallow waters and in kelp beds. Some shrimps have also been found in stomachs.

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

L. australis is usually found near the coast. These dolphins love to swim in and around the channels within kelp beds. They have also been sighted around sandbars and shallow bays. Most sightings of L. australis occur while there are strong tidal currents and during medium tides.

Peale's dolphins tend to inhabit two types of coastline. In the south they are usually found near channels and fjords. In the northern and eastern coast ranges, where the continental shelf underwater is very wide, they tend to be found in the open coast. In the open coast they have been found to swim as deep as 300 meters. There is little kelp there, but more southward and towards the Falkland Islands there are many kelp beds and this is where you will mostly find L. australis.

Range depth: 300 (high) m.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: coastal

  • Goodall, R., K. Norris, W. Schevill, F. Fraga, R. Praderi. 1997. Review and Update on the Biology of the Peale's Dolphin, Lagenorynchus australis. International Whaling Commission Report, 47: 777-796.
  • Goodall, R., J. de Haro, F. Fraga, M. Iniquez, K. Norris. 1997. Sightings and Behavior of Peale's Dolphins, Lagenorynchus australis, with Notes on Dusky Dolphins, L. obscurus, off Southern Most South America. International Whaling Commission Report, 47: 757-775.
  • Lescrauwaet, A. 1997. Notes on the Behavior and the Ecology of the Peale's Dolphin, Lagenorynchus in the Strait of Magellan, Chile. International Whaling Commission Report, 47: 747-755.
  • de Haro, J., M. Iniquez. 1997. Ecology and Behavior of the Peale's Dolphin, Lagenorynchus australis (Peale, 1848), at Cabo Virgenes (52 degrees 30' S., 68 degees 28'W), in Patagonia, Argentina. International Whaling Commission Report, 47: 723-727.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Peale's dolphin occurs in open coastal waters over shallow continental shelves, as well as in bays, inlets, channels, around islands and in the openings to fjords (1) (2) (4). Although recorded at depths of up to 300 metres, the species prefers shallower coastal waters (1) (2), and appears to be particularly associated with kelp beds (2) (4) (8).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Peale's dolphins may feed in groups or alone. It has been hypothesized that this species may tend to feed alone when food is scarce and in groups when food is of abundance. When in groups, L. australis usually exhibits what is called "flower" or "starburst" feeding. They encircle their prey until they form a large group and then they feast. This is mostly done within the kelp beds. When they are sighted eating alone it is usually close to shore. When diving for prey it has been reported that they stay under water from between 10.36 seconds to 1.46 minutes.

Not very many L. australis have been dissected for examining the stomach contents, but known prey species are very extensive all the same.

Foods eaten include: Pleoticus muelleri (Argentine shrimp), squid (Loligo gahi and Illex argentinus), Kingklip fish (Genypterus blacodes),  Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi), southern cod (Salilota australis), hagfish (Myxine australis), Pantagonian grenadier (Marcuronus magellanicus), red octopus (Enteroctopus megalocyathus), other species of herring, makarel, capelin, anchovies, crustaceans and whelks (gastropods).

Animal Foods: fish; mollusks; aquatic or marine worms; aquatic crustaceans

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Molluscivore )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Ecosystem Roles

There is so little known about Peales dolphins that their effect on the pelagic ecosystem is unknown. However, because they prey upon a number of types of animals, there is a potential impact of these dolphins upon prey populations.

Species Used as Host:

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Predation

There are no known predators of L. australis.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Known prey organisms

Lagenorhynchus australis preys on:
non-insect arthropods
Actinopterygii
Mollusca
Crustacea

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

Sounds emitted under water by L. australis include low frequency clicking noises and a "rapid tonal sound", but no whistling. There is little research on vocalizations, as they seem to be very timid communicators around boats taking the data.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; acoustic

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Cycle

Development

Very little has been recorded about the developmental cycle in L. australis. The only studies recorded represent measurements of the ovaries of a few female L. australis. These measurements were representative of the different sexual maturities and the data showed the older females as having more ovarian scars. Even less information has been gathered about males and their sperm activity. There was not enough conclusive information to make any statements. No information has been collected about the young in L. australis and there have been no specimens collected or found with a fetus inside. Because of this we are left to assume that this species is similar in the developmental patterns of better-known dolphin species.

(Goodall et al, 1997 and Claver et al, 1992)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Scientists are able to determine the age of Peale's dolphins by looking at their teeth but no records or studies explain how this is accomplished. The oldest recorded specimen of L. australis was thirteen years old.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
13 (high) years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Little is known bout the mating system of these animals.

In general it has been noted that species within the genus Lagenorynchus have gestation periods of ten to twelve months. Calving season for L. australis usually occurs between the southern spring and autumn but a calf can be born as early as October. Females tend to have only one calf per birth (maybe two) and they also move more inshore to do this. Some records show that when two of these dolphins were spotted together in the past, they were only considered a mother and calf if the smaller of the two animals was one third or less the size of the adult accompanying it. On visual sightings alone, this is probably still the most common way to tell a calf from an adult.

Although data are not available for this species, in another member of the genus, L. acutus, young are between 90 and 125 cm at birth. They nurse for about 18 months, and become independent of their mothers around the age of 2 years. It is not known whne these animals mature sexually.

Breeding season: It is not known for certain when mating occurs, but births occur during the Southern Spring to Autumn.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 10 to 12 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization (Internal ); viviparous

Young are precocial and swim along side of their mothers from birth. The mother provides her calf with milk for approximately 18 months, although the calf may remain dependent upon her for an additional 6 months. It is not known what role males play, if any, in the parental care of this species.

Parental Investment: precocial ; pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence; extended period of juvenile learning

  • Goodall, R., K. Norris, W. Schevill, F. Fraga, R. Praderi. 1997. Review and Update on the Biology of the Peale's Dolphin, Lagenorynchus australis. International Whaling Commission Report, 47: 777-796.
  • Goodall, R., J. de Haro, F. Fraga, M. Iniquez, K. Norris. 1997. Sightings and Behavior of Peale's Dolphins, Lagenorynchus australis, with Notes on Dusky Dolphins, L. obscurus, off Southern Most South America. International Whaling Commission Report, 47: 757-775.
  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walkers Mammals of the World, Sixth ediition. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K., Karczmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B.

Reviewer/s
Rojas-Bracho, L. & Smith, B.D. (Cetacean Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
There is a lack of adequate information to make an assessment of extinction risk for this species (lack of a population estimate, and lack of an assessment of the impact of the use as crab-bait).

History
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
  • 1994
    Insufficiently Known
    (Groombridge 1994)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Lagenorynchus australis has not been studied intensively to determine population trends. There are a few human sources of mortality that may be of a concern in the future. These include shore-set gill nets (accidental catch), inshore fishing (incidental catch), and salmon farms near Chile (a few have been caught in the anti-pinniped nets despite the loud sounds made underwater to deter them). Deep sea fishermen have been known to occasionally catch a few Peales dophins in their mid-water nets. A more serious situation is occurring near crab fisheries where the use of nets has been outlawed. Fisheries have been known to use harpooned L. australis as bait. (Nowark, 1999 and Goodall et al, 1997)

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: data deficient

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Classified as Data Deficient (DD) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
No information is available about the abundance of L. australis. However, this species is reportedly the most common cetacean found around the coast of the Falkland Islands and some parts of Chile (Goodall et al. 1997a; Brownell et al. 1999). The dolphins in Beagle Channel, the Magallanes, and southern Tierra del Fuego have been harpooned for crab bait since the 1970s. The scale of this killing was great enough to cause reduced abundance by the late 1980s (Lescrauwaet and Gibbons 1994).

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There is considerable concern about numbers of Peale's Dolphins that are hunted with harpoons in the Strait of Magellan and around Tierra del Fuego, where the meat is used as bait in crab traps (Lescrauwaet and Gibbons 1994). Although direct hunting of dolphins has been prohibited in Chile since 1977, crab traps for centolla (southern king crab) Lithodes antarctica and centollon (false king crab) Paralomis granubosa, are still set with dolphin meat. Sielfeld et al. (1977) estimated some 2,350 dolphins, including both L. australis and Cephalorhynchus commersonii, were killed during the 1976/1977 crab-fishing season to bait crab traps used in the Strait of Magellan and the Chilean part of the Beagle Channel; this level of take across a number of years could have had a significant impact on the population. No recent estimates are available on the number of marine mammals killed for bait (Brownell et al. 1999; Lescrauwaet pers. comm.), but it is thought to be lower than in the past (Goodall 2002). Dolphin takes in the Argentinean sector stopped after the early 1980s (Goodall 2002).

Peale's dolphins are incidentally entangled and drowned in nets (Jefferson et al. 1993). There are reports from Queule and Mehuin (Chile), southern Patagonia, northeastern Tierra del Fuego and southern Santa Cruz (Argentina) that local fishermen may incidentally catch Peale's dolphins (Reyes 1991; Brownell et al. 1999). In the northern part of their Pacific range, however, Peale's dolphins seem to be rarely taken (Goodall 2002). Their close dependence on kelp forests may render them vulnerable to habitat loss (Viddi and Lescrauwaet 2005).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Although reported to be relatively common within its range, no population estimates are available for Peale's dolphin (1) (2) (7). There is also a lack of information on the impacts of the threats to the species, making it difficult to assess its conservation status (1). Peale's dolphin has been heavily exploited since the 1970s for use as crab bait, a practice which is thought to have reduced the species' abundance by the late 1980s (1) (2) (7). Although now banned, the practice still occurs in Chile, although at lower levels than before (1) (4) (7). There is concern that the number of Peale's dolphins taken could lead to problems for the species, especially given its restricted distribution (6). Peale's dolphin is also occasionally entangled and drowned in gillnets, and sometimes caught in anti-predator nets around salmon pens in Chile, although this is thought to occur only at low levels (1) (2) (4) (7). Other potential threats to Peale's dolphin include organochlorine pollution (11), and any threats to the kelp forests on which the species depends (8). Tour operators have also recently begun offering trips to see Peale's dolphins near Punta Arenas in Chile, but no laws exist to regulate this activity or to monitor its potential impacts (7).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species is on Appendix II of CITES.

Recommended actions for conservation include cooperative research on biology and abundance, more comprehensive statistics on the use of Peale’s dolphin as bait and continued development of alternative sources of bait (the availability of legal bait has already diminished considerably the potential impact of crab-fisheries). Critical neritic habitat should be identified and protected for this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

More information is needed on the extent of the exploitation of Peale's dolphin for crab bait (4) (7). The Chilean government has undertaken some measures to help regulate the use of marine mammals in crab fisheries, including educating fishing communities and providing alternative sources of bait, and the practice of using dolphins as bait is reported to have declined in recent years. However, a certain amount of illegal fishing and baiting may continue (7). Other recommended conservation actions for Peale's dolphin include further research into its biology and abundance, identification and protection of key habitats, education campaigns, and enforcement of hunting regulations (1) (11). In addition to its listing on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (3), meaning international trade in Peale's dolphin should be carefully controlled, the species is also listed on Appendix II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) (12), based on the fact that its movement through the Beagle Channel and Strait of Magellan is likely to involve the national boundaries of Argentina and Chile (11).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

It is difficult to speculate on how these acquatic mammals might negatively impact humans. There are no reports of negative interactions, but it is possible that through their predatory behavior, populations of Peale's dolphins could negatively impact commercial or subsistence fisheries. However, this is just speculation, and there are no reports of this being the case.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Humans have occasionally harpoon Peales dolphins for use as bait.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Risks

IUCN Red List Category

Data Deficient (DD)
  • IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Peale's dolphin

Peale's dolphin (Lagenorhynchus australis) is a small dolphin found in the waters around Tierra del Fuego at the foot of South America. It is also commonly known as the black-chinned dolphin or even Peale's black-chinned dolphin. However, since Rice's work [2] Peale's dolphin has been adopted as the standard common name.

Taxonomy[edit]

Though it is traditionally placed in the genus Lagenorhynchus, recent molecular analyses indicate Peale's dolphin is actually more closely related to the dolphins of the genus Cephalorhynchus. If true, this would mean this species must either be transferred to Cephalorhynchus or be given a new genus of its own. An alternate genus proposed for this species (as well as the Pacific white-sided dolphin and dusky dolphin is Sagmatias.[3] Some behavioral and morphological data support moving Peal's dolphin to Cephalorhynchus. According to Schevill & Watkins 1971, Peale's dolphin and the Cephalorhynchus species are the only dolphins that do not whistle. Peale's dolphin also shares with several Cephalorhynchus species the possession of a distinct white "armpit" marking behind the pectoral fin.

Physical description[edit]

Peale's dolphin

Peale's dolphin is of typical size in its family — about 1 m in length at birth and 2.1 m (6.9 ft) when fully mature. Its adult weight is about 115 kg. It has a dark-grey face and chin. The back is largely black with a single off-white stripe running curving and thickened as it runs down the back on each side. The belly is white. Conspicuously, also a white patch occurs under just behind each flippers. These are known as the "armpits". The flanks also have a large white-grey patch above the flipper. The dorsal fin is large for this size cetacean and distinctively falcated. The flippers themselves are small and pointed. The tail fin, too, has pointed tips, as well as a notch at its middle.

The species looks similar to the dusky dolphin when viewed at a distance, and may be confused with it.

Population and distribution[edit]

Peale's dolphin is endemic to the coastal waters around southern South America. On the Pacific side, they have been seen as far north as Valdivia, Chile at 38°S. On the Atlantic side, sightings typically diminish at about 44°S — near Golfo San Jorge, Argentina. In the south, they have been seen at almost 60°S — well into the Drake Passage.

They are often found in areas of fast-moving waters, such as entrances to channels and narrows, as well as close to shore in safe areas such as bays.

The total population is unknown, but is thought to be locally common.

Behaviour[edit]

Peale's dolphins congregate in small groups — usually about five in number, and sometimes up to 20. On rare occasions in summer and autumn, much larger groups have been recorded (100 individuals). A typical pattern is for the group to move in a line parallel to the shore. They usually swim slowly, but are prone to bursts of activity.

Conservation[edit]

Peale's dolphins' propensity for moving over only small areas, and staying close to shore, has rendered them vulnerable to interference by man. During the 1970s and '80s, Chilean fisherman killed and used thousands of Peale's dolphins for crab bait each year. This practice has decreased, but not been made illegal.

In Argentina, Peale's dolphins have been reported becoming trapped in gill nets, but the extent of this is not known. Conservation groups such as the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society demand further research be made into this species.

The Peale's dolphin or black-chinned dolphin is listed on Appendix II[4] of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). It is listed on Appendix II[4] as it has an unfavourable conservation status or would benefit significantly from international co-operation organised by tailored agreements.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K., Karczmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B. (2008). Lagenorhynchus australis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 24 March 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of data deficient.
  2. ^ "Marine Mammals of the World. Systematics and Distribution", by Dale W. Rice (1998). Published by the Society of Marine Mammalogy as Special Publication No. 4
  3. ^ Shirihai, H. and Jarrett, B. (2006). Whales, Dolphins and Other Marine Mammals of the World. Princeton Field Guides. pp. 205–207. ISBN 9780691127569. 
  4. ^ a b "Appendix II" of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). As amended by the Conference of the Parties in 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. Effective: 5th March 2009.
  5. ^ Convention on Migratory Species page on the Peale's dolphin / Black-chinned dolphin
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!