Overview

Brief Summary

Description

Despite its limited distribution this is by far Africa's most abundant gazelle (3). The 'tommy', as it is locally known (3), has a distinct black band running along the side of the body that divides the yellowish-fawn to reddish-fawn upperparts from the clean white underparts (2). The white buttocks are edged with black (2), extending to the short, black tail which is constantly flicking (3). Both sexes of the Thomson's gazelle have long, strongly ringed horns that grow fairly close together, although those of the ewe are generally shorter, thinner, and frequently deformed (3). The face is boldly marked with white, fawn, dark brown and black, and varies between individuals (2).
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Biology

Thomson's gazelles form small herds but are socially very flexible (2) (3). Herds of females overlap with other herds, and movement between herds is common. Within their shared home range the females rest, move between pastures and visit waters (2). Males are a little less flexible and mature males fight to obtain and defend territories within the female's favourite pastures (2). They denote the boundaries of their territory with dung and by marking grass stems and twigs with secretion from the scent glands beneath their eyes (2). Territoriality in males' peaks during mating periods when frequent fights and stand-offs occur between neighbouring males, and males attempt to mate with any receptive female that enters their area (2) (3). Lambs may be born at any time of the year, but birthing often occurs towards the end of the rainy season (3). Females are pregnant for 188 days, after which a single lamb weighing two to three kilograms is born (3). Thomson's gazelles feed on fresh green grass whenever possible, but during the dry season, feeding on seeds and the foliage of shrubs is necessary (2). Thomson's gazelles need to drink water every day or two, and in its dry grassland habitat this sometimes requires making round trips of ten miles or more (4).
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Distribution

Thomson's gazelles are found in eastern Africa, in Kenya, Tanzania, and southern Sudan.

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

  • Feldhamer, G., L. Drickamer, S. Vessey, J. Merritt, C. Krajewski. 2007. Mammalogy: Adaptation, Diversity, Ecology 3rd edition. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
  • African Wildlife Foundation, 1997. Wild Lives Guidebook: Profiles of East African Mammals. Washington, DC: African Wildlife Foundation.
  • 2009. "ARKive: Images of Life on Earth" (On-line). Accessed February 23, 2009 at http://www.arkive.org/.
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Range Description

Thomson's Gazelle occurs widely within its historical range in the grasslands of southern and central Kenya. The largest populations occur in the Mara ranches, Masai Mara National Reserve and the Laikipia and Kajiado rangelands. In Tanzania, the species occupies about half of its former range in Acacia savannas and grasslands in the north (East 1999).
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Range

Thomson's gazelle occurs in Kenya and Tanzania, whilst subspecies G. t. albonotata inhabits south-eastern Sudan and possibly south-western Ethiopia (3).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Thomson's gazelles are small gazelles, the typical weight range is 15 to 35 kg. Males are larger overall, ranging in weight from 20 to 35 kg, females are from 15 to 25 kg. They have white bellies and reddish-brown backs, divided by a bold, black stripe laterally. Their rumps are white and their tails are black. Thomson's gazelles have reddish-brown fur on their faces, with a broad white stripe that extends from the eye to the nose and is bordered below by a black stripe. Males and some females have horns that curve backwards and are curved forwards distally in males. Females have smaller horns, if any, both lengthwise and in circumference. The horns are arrayed with a series of marked annulations. Thomson's gazelles resemble Grant's gazelles (Nanger granti) somewhat, although Grant's gazelles are larger overall, have horns that curve outwards, and the white of their rump extends to above the tail. Thomson's gazelles have a head and body length of 80 to 120 cm, a tail length of 15 to 27 cm, and height at the shoulder of 55 to 82 cm. They have prominent pre-orbital glands.

Thomson's gazelles are exceptionally fast runners, able to run at speeds up to 70 km/hour. They can outrun cheetahs if they can evade them for long enough because cheetahs can maintain high speeds for shorter times.

Range mass: 15 to 35 kg.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; ornamentation

  • Dorst, J. 1969. A Field Guide to The Larger Mammals of Africa. Great Britain: Houghton Mifflin Company Boston.
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Ecology

Habitat

Thomson's gazelles live in dry, short grasslands and shrubby savannas. They are an arid-adapted species and are able to stay in dry grasslands for longer than other plains ungulates in the same region, which migrate towards more moist habitats. They follow a similar sort of seasonal migratory pattern as other ungulates in their range, but they stay for longer on the wet season range and don't migrate as far north in the dry season.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland

Other Habitat Features: agricultural

  • Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • 2008. "IUCN 20008 Red List of Threatened Species:Eudorcas thomsonii" (On-line). Accessed April 24, 2009 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/8982.
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Thomson's Gazelle live in the short grasslands of Kenya and Tanzania (East 1999). They are primarily grazers, although they may include more forbs and fruits in their diect in the dry season; Thomson's Gazelle are relatively drought resistant, enabling them to remain out on the dry plains, long after most other ungulates have moved off to find wetter habitats (FitzGibbon and Wilmshurst in press). Thomson's Gazelle in the Serengeti follow a broadly similar pattern of seasonal movements to the Serengeti's migratory wildebeest and zebra populations, but remain for longer in the wet season range on the open plains in the south-east of the ecosystem and do not migrate as far north as the Masai Mara reserve in Kenya during the dry season (East 1999).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Thomson's gazelle inhabits dry grasslands and shrubby steppes. It prefers heavily grazed, trampled or burnt grasslands, or naturally open steppe, and can stay on pastures long after large herbivores have deserted it (2).
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Trophic Strategy

Thomson’s gazelles graze mainly on short grasses. They eat twigs, seeds, and leaves from trees as well, especially during the dry season. Their smaller body size and drought tolerance make it possible for them to persist on arid grasslands that cannot support larger ungulates. Preferred grasses include Themeda, Cynodon, and Harpachne species. Foliage and seeds taken are from Acacia, Balanites, Boscia, Sida, and Solanum species.

Plant Foods: leaves; wood, bark, or stems; seeds, grains, and nuts

Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )

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Associations

Thomson's gazelles are eaten by large predators such as lions, hyenas, and jackals. They modify plant communities through their grazing.

Mutualist Species:

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Predators of Thomson's gazelles include lions, spotted hyenas, wild dogs, cheetahs, leopards, and jackals. During the calving season, the young are easy prey for all of these predators, as well as yellow baboons and pythons. Thomson's gazelles travel in small herds, which helps to protect individuals from predation. They are alert and can run quickly.

Known Predators:

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Thomson’s gazelles are fairly silent animals that communicate more visually. When alarmed they will communicate to conspecifics by stotting, which is a stereotyped series of high jumps with the head held high and the legs stiff. Males communicate to other males and females by marking territories with their scent glands, including preorbital glands that they use to mark grasses and stems. Males also drop dung at spots in their territory to advertise ownership.

Communication Channels: visual ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

Thomson's gazelles typically have a lifespan of 10.5 years in the wild. Approximately half of calves will die within their first year.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
10.5 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 20 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

Thomson's gazelle males defend small territories and attempt to mate with females in that area. Females prefer rich foraging grounds, so preferred territories are those in areas with good grazing. Males use markings from preorbital glands and dung to advertise their territories and actively defend them against other males. They sometimes attempt to "herd" females in order to keep them in their territory for longer.

Mating System: polygynous

There is little available information on breeding in Thomson's gazelles. Thomson's gazelles mate twice yearly. Gestation is for 6 months and the majority of births occur right after the rainy season, with a single calf being born at 2 to 3 kg.

Breeding interval: Thomson's gazelles can breed twice a year.

Breeding season: Most breeding is timed so that most births occur right after the rainy season, although births can occur throughout the year.

Range number of offspring: 1 (low) .

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 6 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Thomson's gazelle calves are precocial at birth, able to stand and walk soon after, although they spend their first days hidden and motionless in the grass. The mother will leave the young in high grass and frequently come back a few times during the day to nurse. After this hiding period, the young follow and accompany their mother with the herd.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

  • Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Dorst, J. 1969. A Field Guide to The Larger Mammals of Africa. Great Britain: Houghton Mifflin Company Boston.
  • African Wildlife Foundation, 1997. Wild Lives Guidebook: Profiles of East African Mammals. Washington, DC: African Wildlife Foundation.
  • Estes, R. 1967. The Comparative Behavior of Grant's and Thomson's Gazelles. Journal of Mammalogy, Volume 48, Number 2: 189-209.
  • 2009. "ARKive: Images of Life on Earth" (On-line). Accessed February 23, 2009 at http://www.arkive.org/.
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Carotid rete cools brain: Thomson's gazelle
 

The carotid rete of the Thomson's gazelle cools its brain via counter-current heat exchange.

     
  The Thomson’s gazelle lives in the East African savannah where is it  exposed to high temperatures and predation by big cats, like the  cheetah, lion, or leopard. These gazelles have been recorded to run at  up to 43-50 miles per hour. Such a burst of speed may raise the  metabolic rate, and thus heat production, by as much as 40 fold.  Dissipating such heat loads is difficult, especially in arid  environments where water is scarce and an animal needs to avoid losing  too much.  

The brain is a part of the body that is particularly sensitive  to high temperature. Hence some ungulates, like the Thomson’s gazelle,  have evolved a counter-current heat exchanging structure known as the  carotid rete, a configuration of blood vessels in the brain that can  keep its temperature lower than body temperature. The blood flowing to  the brain moves from the carotid artery into a network of small arteries  within a large venous sinus or cavity filled with cooled blood  returning from the nasal passages. The warm arterial blood gives up some  of its heat to the cool venous blood and this lowers the temperature of  the blood on its way to the brain. In the running Thomson’s gazelle,  body temperature rises more than brain temperature such that a  difference between brain and body temperature has been measured at 2.7°  C. A predator like the cheetah must stop running when its body and brain  temperature reaches 40.5° C but the gazelle can keep running as its  body temperature rises above 43° without its brain temperature exceeding  40.5°. The ability to keep a cool head can thus give the gazelle a  survival edge in these predatory pursuits as he can outlast the cheetah  who cannot maintain a cooler brain. 

Counter-current heat exchangers can be found in many organisms  in many configurations. While such mechanisms are well known to  engineers, a close look at the design of those used by nature may be  useful in designing thermal control systems of human habitations. (Courtesy of The Biomimicry Institute)

  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Taylor, C.R.; Lyman, C.P. 1972. Heat storage in running antelopes: independence of brain and body temperatures. American Journal of Physiology. 222: 114-117.
  • Taylor, C.R.; Roundtree, V. 1973. Temperature regulation in running cheetah: a strategy for sprinters. American Journal of Physiology. 224: 848-851.
  • Baker, M.A.; Hayward, J.N. 1968. The influence of the nasal mucosa and the carotid rete upon hypothalamic temperature in sheep. Journal of Physiology. 198: 561-579.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

According to the IUCN Red List, Thomson's gazelles are listed as near threatened. Although populations are stable in some areas and widespread, some populations have experienced severe declines since the 1970's. If E. thomsonii and E. mongalla (southern Sudan populations) are considered separate species, then E. thomsonii has a small and restricted distribution, which further threatens this species. In Kenya, the largest populations are found in the lands of the Masai Mara, the Masai Mara National Reserve, and the Laikipia and Kajiado rangelands. They occupy about half of their former range in Tanzania. In some areas population declines can be partially attributed to human impacts such as roads, habitat changes, and the impacts of tourism. Large parts of their range are already in protected areas, including the Serengeti National Park and Masai Mara National Reserve.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: near threatened

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group

Reviewer/s
Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
Surveys have reported steep declines (60-70%) over periods of c. 20 years dating from the late 1970s in several places, including the main strongholds for the species: Serengeti, Masai Mara and Ngorongoro. Though overall numbers still seem to be falling, no declines on this scale have been reported recently. However, it is estimated that the decline over the last 3 generations (18 years) has reached 25%, and is very possibly higher, bringing the species very close to qualifying for Vulnerable under criterion A. Careful monitoring of population trends is needed and it is entirely feasible that new survey information could merit transfer of this species to a higher category of threat. This assessment considers E. thomsonii and E. mongalla as separate species when formerly they were assessed together. Under this arrangement, Thomson's Gazelle now has a relatively restricted distribution within East Africa, which should also be taken into consideration.
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Status

Classified as Lower Risk / Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) by the IUCN Red List 2007. Subspecies: Gazella thomsonii albonotata, the Mongalla gazelle, classified as Lower Risk / Near Threatened (LR/nt) (1). The status of Thomson's gazelle is currently under review for the IUCN Red List 2008.
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Population

Population
East (1999) estimated the population size of Thomson's Gazelle at around 550,000 animals. The migratory population of the Serengeti ecosystem, which is Africa's largest and most spectacular gazelle population, has been estimated at 174,015 (± 37,406 S.E.), based on data from the 2003 wet season (Mduma 2003), which is indicative of a steep decline since the estimate of 500,000 in the early 1980s (Sinclair and Norton-Griffths 1982). This would be consistent with a loss of large wild herbivores in the Masai Mara ecosystem in Kenya, where there are estimated to be ca. 40,000 in the Masai Mara reserve, a decline from ca. 100,000 in 1977 (Ottichilo et al. 2000). Likewise, Estes et al. (2006) report a decline of 60% from 1978-2005 in the Ngorongoro Crater. There are also reports of declines in the Ewaso Nyira basin, where numbers were estimated at ca. 33,000 in 1977, but at one-third of this in 1997 (Muchoki 2000).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Although there do not appear to be any major threats to Thomson's Gazelle, there is evidence that several populations have undergone declines (FitzGibbon and Wilmshurst in press). In Ngorongoro Crater, these declines have been attributed to availability of water, tourist impacts, habitat modification due to exotic plant invasion, fire management, and road development (Estes et al. 2006).
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The Thomson's gazelle was once widespread throughout its range, but now occurs in fragmented populations, in ever-declining areas (2). This is likely to be due to the encroachment of man onto their habitat (5), and hunting (1).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Thomson's Gazelle occur in a number of protected areas in their range, with core areas of the Serengeti-Mara population protected by the Serengeti N.P. and Masai Mara N.R., where wildlife tourism is the only permitted land use (FitzGibbon and Wilmshurst in press).
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Conservation

Whilst in many areas Thomson's gazelles have declined, in some areas the species remains common, particularly in protected areas (2), such as the Serengeti National Park. The continued protection and management of such areas is likely to be vital for the conservation of Thomson's gazelle.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Thomson's gazelles may be killed by farmers who think that they compete with domestic livestock. However, their impact is likely to be negligible.

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Thomson's gazelles may be hunted for skin and meat. They are also part of the charismatic African ungulate fauna that supports a huge ecotourism industry in eastern Africa.

Positive Impacts: food ; body parts are source of valuable material; ecotourism

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Wikipedia

Thomson's gazelle

The Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii) is one of the best-known gazelles. It is named after explorer Joseph Thomson and is sometimes referred to as a "tommie".[1] It is considered by some to be a subspecies of the red-fronted gazelle and was formerly considered a member of the genus Gazella within the subgenus Eudorcas, before Eudorcas was elevated to genus status.[2] Thomson's gazelles can be found in numbers exceeding 550,000[3] in Africa and are recognized as the most common type of gazelle in East Africa.[1]

Description[edit]

Thomson's gazelles are 55 to 82 cm (22 to 32 in) tall, body length of 80 to 120 cm (31 to 47 in), and weigh 15 to 25 kg (33 to 55 lb) (females), 20 to 35 kg (44 to 77 lb) (males).[4] They have light brown coats with white underparts and distinctive black stripes on the sides. Their horns are long and pointed with slight curvature. The white patch on their rumps extends to underneath the tail, but no further. Grant's gazelles are sometimes mistaken for Thomson's gazelles. Although some Grant's do have the black stripe running across their sides, the white on their rumps always extends above the tail.

Ecology[edit]

The Thomson's gazelle lives in Africa's savannas and grassland habitats, particularly the Serengeti region of Kenya and Tanzania. It has narrow habitat preferences, preferring short grassland with dry, sturdy foundation.[5] It does, however, migrate into tall grassland and dense woodland.[5] Gazelles are mixed feeders.[5] In the wet seasons, they eat mainly fresh grasses,[6] but during the dry seasons, they eat more browse,[6] particularly foliage from bushes, forbs, and clovers.[5]

Thomson's gazelles are dependent on short grass.[6] Their numbers are highly concentrated at the beginning of the rains since the grass grows quickly.[6] They follow the larger herbivores, such as plains zebras and blue wildebeests as they mow down the tall grasses.[6] Then, the gazelles spread out more.[6] In the wild, Thomson's gazelles can live 10–15 years. Their major predators are cheetahs, which are able to attain higher speeds, but gazelles can outlast them in long chases and are able to make turns more speedily.[7] This small antelope-gazelle can run extremely fast, from 80 km/h (50 mph),[8] to 96 km/h (60 mph)[9] and zigzag, a peculiarity which often saves it from predators. Sometimes they are also chased by leopards, lions and hyenas, but the gazelles are faster and more agile; these predators attack especially the young or infirm individuals. They can also be devoured by crocodiles and pythons, and their fawns are sometimes the prey of eagles, jackals, and baboons. A noticeable behaviour of Thomson's gazelles is their bounding leap, known as stotting or pronking, used to startle predators and display strength.

Social behavior[edit]

Male gazelles with females in territory
Gazelle marking a grass stem with preorbital gland

During the wet season, a time when grass is abundant, adult male gazelles will graze extensively. They spread out more and establish breeding territories.[10] Younger males usually spend their time in bachelor groups, and are prevented from entering the territories.[11] Females form migratory groups that enter the males' territories, mostly the ones with the highest-quality resources.[11] As the female groups pass though and forage, the territorial males may try to herd them, and are usually successful in preventing single females from leaving, but not whole groups.[5][11] Subadult males usually establish dominance through actual combat, while adults are more likely to do rituals.[5] If a bachelor male should be passing through a territorial male's region, the male will chase the offender out of his territory.[5]

When patrolling his territory, a male may use his horns to gore the grass, soil, or a bush.[12] Males will also mark grass stems with their preorbital glands, which emit a dark secretion.[5][12] Territories of different males may share a boundary. When territorial males meet at the border of their territories, they engage in mock fights in which they rush towards each other as if they are about to clash, but without touching.[12] After this, they graze in a frontal position, then in parallel and them in reverse, and move away from each other while constantly grazing.[12] These rituals have no victor, but merely maintain the boundaries of the territories.[12] Territorial males usually will not enter another male's territory. If a male is chasing an escaping female, he will stop the chase if she runs into another territory, but the neighboring male will continue the chase.[12]

Reproduction and parental care[edit]

Male gazelle mounting a female
Fawn hiding in the grass

A male gazelle will follow a female and sniff her urine to find out if she is in estrus, a process known as the Flehmen response. If so, he will continue to court and mount her.[12] Females will leave the herd to give birth to single fawns after a five- to six-month gestation period.[13] They give birth twice yearly.[6] When birthing, a female gazelle crouches as the newborn fawn drops to the ground, tearing the umbilical cord.[14] The mother then licks the fawn clean of amniotic fluid and tissues.[14] In addition, licking possibly also serves to stimulate the fawn’s blood circulation, or to "label" it so its mother can recognize it by scent.[14]

In the first six hours of the fawn’s life, it moves and rests with its mother, but eventually spends more time away from its mother or hides in the grass.[14] The mother stays in the vicinity of the fawn and returns to nurse it daily. Mother and fawn may spend an hour together before the fawn goes and lies back down to wait for the next nursing.[14] Mother gazelles may associate with other gazelle mothers, but the fawns do not gather into "kindergartens".[14] Mothers will defend their young against jackals and baboons, but not against larger predators. Sometimes, a female can fend off a male baboon by headbutting him with her horns to defend her fawn.

As the fawn approaches two months of age, it spends more time with its mother and less time hiding. Eventually, it stops hiding.[14] Around this time, the fawn starts eating solid food, but continues to nurse from its mother.[14] The pair will also join a herd. Young female gazelles may associate with their mothers as yearlings.[14] Young males may also follow their mothers, but as they reach adolescence, they are noticed by territorial males, so cannot follow their mothers into territories. The mother may follow and stay with him, but eventually stops following him when he is driven away; the male will then join a bachelor group.[14]

Status[edit]

Male gazelle with females in Ngorongoro Crater

The population estimate is around 550,000. The population had declined 60% from 1978 to 2005.[15] Threats to Thomson’s gazelles are tourist impacts, habitat modification, fire management, and road development.[3] Surveys have reported steep declines (60-70%) over periods of about 20 years dating from the late 1970s in several places, including the main strongholds for the species: Serengeti, Masai Mara, and Ngorongoro.[3]

Cultural References[edit]

References to the Thompson's gazelle were an occasional running gag in Monty Python's Flying Circus.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Thomson's Gazelle". African Wildlife Foundation. 
  2. ^ Kingdon, Jonathan (1997) The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego and London. Pp. 411–413. (ISBN 0-12-408355-2)
  3. ^ a b c "Gazella thomsonii". Antelope Specialist Group. 1996. 
  4. ^ "Animal Diversity Web: Eudorcas thomsonii Thomson's gazelle". Animal Diversity Web. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Estes, R. (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Los Angeles, The University of California Press. pgs. 70-75
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Kingdon, J. (1979). East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa, Volume 3, Part. D: Bovids. University Chicago Press, Chicago pgs. 403-413.
  7. ^ "Cheetah cubs vs gazelle - BBC wildlife". YouTube. 
  8. ^ Natural History Magazine, March 1974, The American Museum of Natural History; and James G. Doherty, general curator, The Wildlife Conservation Society
  9. ^ "Maxisciences, le record de vitesse de la gazelle de Thomson a été enregistré à 94,2 km/h". Gentside Découverte. 
  10. ^ Walther, F. R. (1977). "Sex and Activity Dependency of Distances Between Thomson's Gazelles (Gazella Thomsoni Gunther 1884)." Animal Behaviour 25(3): 713-719.
  11. ^ a b c Jarman, P. J. (1974). "The Social Organization of Antelope in Relation to their Ecology." Behaviour 48(3-4): 215-267.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Fritz Walther, (1995) In the Country of Gazelles, Chapter 1; "Short-tail and Roman", pp. 1-37. Indiana University Press.
  13. ^ Estes, R. D. (1967). "The Comparative Behavior of Grant's and Thomson's Gazelles." Journal of Mammalogy 48(2): 189-209.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fritz Walther, (1995) In the Country of Gazelles, Chapter 6: "On mothers and their young", pp. 94-113. Indiana University Press.
  15. ^ East, R. 1999. African Antelope Database 1999. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Further reading[edit]

  • Gazelles and Their Relatives by Fritz Walther (1984)
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