Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs in deep runs and pools of creeks and rivers; also in lakes and the sea (Ref. 5723). Lives in very clean mountain streams (Ref. 12218). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Typically anadromous, but many populations are landlocked (Ref. 5723). Anadromous fish may spend 2-3 years at sea, evidently near shore, and migrate upstream to spawn (Ref. 5723). Young remain in streams for 3-4 years and feed on insects, leeches, snails, and salmon eggs (Ref. 1998) before entering brackish and salt water to feed on insects, fishes, and other invertebrates. Utilized fresh and eaten fried, broiled, and baked (Ref. 9988).
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Distribution

Arctic, Northwest to Northeast Pacific: drainages from Alaska to Puget Sound, Washington, USA; formerly in McCloud River drainages in California, USA. Northwest Pacific: Korea to Bering Sea (Ref. 2850).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 16; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 10 - 15
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Size

Max. size

127 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 27436)); max. published weight: 18.3 kg (Ref. 27436)
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Diagnostic Description

Body elongate, somewhat rounded, greatest body depth below dorsal fin. Head rather long. Pelvic fins with free-tipped fleshy appendage above its insertion. Caudal emarginate (Ref. 27547). Color varies with size, locality and habitat. Sea-run adults with back, upper head, and upper sides dark blue, the sides silvery to white. In freshwater populations, the back and upper sides are olive green to brown, the sides a paler color but bright red in spawning fish and at all times in some areas of Alaska, the underside white to dusky. The dorsal surface are marked with yellow, orange or red spots, more numerous and those along the lateral line smaller, than in arctic char. Spawning males, especially of anadromous populations, turn red on the ventral surface and tip of snout. The lower jaw, operculum and parts of the head are black, the back and sides turn olive-brown. The spots become more vivid orange-red, the pectoral and anal fins red-black with a white leading edge, the snout thickens and the lower jaw turns up. Females change less.
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Type Information

Type for Salmo parkei
Catalog Number: USNM 2013
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): A. Campbell
Locality: Clarke'S Fork, Columbia R., Washington, United States, North America
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Amur River Benthopelagic Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of benthopelagic species in the Amur River system. Benthopelagic river fish are found near the bottom of the water column, feeding on benthos and zooplankton

The persistence of mercury contamination in Amur River bottom sediments is a major issue, arising from historic cinnabar mining in the basin and poor waste management practises, especially in the communist Soviet era, where industrial development was placed ahead of sound conservation practises.

Other large benthopelagic river fish of the Amur Basin is the 200 cm yellowcheek (Elopichthys bambusa) and the 122 cm Mongolian redfin (Chanodichthys mongolicus)

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Environment

benthopelagic; anadromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 50550)
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Migration

Anadromous. Fish that ascend rivers to spawn, as salmon and hilsa do. Sub-division of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in deep runs and pools of creeks and rivers; also in lakes and the sea (Ref. 5723). Lives in very clean mountain streams (Ref. 12218). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Typically anadromous, but many populations are landlocked (Ref. 5723). Anadromous fish may spend 2-3 years at sea, evidently near shore, and migrate upstream to spawn (Ref. 5723). Young remain in streams for 3-4 years and feed on insects, leeches, snails, and salmon eggs (Ref. 1998) before entering brackish and salt water to feed on insects, fishes, and other invertebrates (Ref. 1998).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Adults from the sea and lakes enter rivers to spawn. A female selects a nest site and begins to dig a redd while the male continues to court her and drive away intruding males. Upon completion of the redd, both drop into it and release eggs and sperm. This may be repeated several times before the eggs are covered by the female who swims along the edge of the of the redd, sweeping small pebbles and other particles into it with her tail and anal fin. Later, she may dig again and further cover the eggs while preparing a new nest (Ref. 27547). Breeding is an annual event for southern populations; occurring every second or third year in the Arctic (Ref. 27547). Males and females reportedly die after spawning (Ref. 12218).
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
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Wikipedia

Dolly Varden trout

For the other subspecies, see southern Dolly Varden and Salvelinus malma miyabei; for other species currently or formerly known as "Dolly Varden trout", see also bull trout and arctic char.

The Dolly Varden trout (Salvelinus malma) is a species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. It is in the genus Salvelinus of true chars, which includes 51 recognized species, the most prominent being the brook, lake and bull trout, as well as arctic char. Although many populations are semi-anadromous, fluvial and lacustrine populations occur throughout its range. It is considered by taxonomists as part of the Salvelinus alpinus or arctic char complex, as many populations of bull trout, Dolly Varden trout and arctic char overlap.

Taxonomy[edit]

The scientific name of the Dolly Varden is Salvelinus malma.[2] The species was originally named by German naturalist and taxonomist Johann Julius Walbaum in 1792 based on type specimens from the Kamchatka Peninsula in Siberia. The name malma was based on the local Russian colloquial name for the fish. The Dolly Varden trout is considered part of the S. alpinus or arctic char complex.[3] According to Benhke (2002), two subspecies exist, the northern Dolly Varden (S. m. malma) and the southern Dolly Varden (S. m. ssp). The Miyabe charr (S. m. miyabei) (Oshima, 1938) from Japan is also part of the Dolly Varden species.[4] The subspecies name for the southern Dolly Varden varies depending on which literature is referenced.[2] Russian literature gives the southern Dolly Varden the subspecies name S. m. krascheninnikovi (1939) while most North American literature uses S. m. lordi (1866). For most of the 19th and 20th centuries, the Dolly Varden trout (S. malma) and the bull trout (S. confluentus) were considered the same species. Additionally, the arctic char (S. alpinus) along with the bull trout have ranges that overlap and are remarkably similar in appearance, thus complicating identification. In 1978, inland forms of the Dolly Varden trout were reclassified as Salvelinus confluentus, retaining the common name bull trout.[5] It appears that the first recorded use of the Dolly Varden name for fish referred to S. confluentus, now commonly known as the bull trout. This was likely due to overlapping ranges and similar appearances among members of the two species.

Origin of common name "Dolly Varden"[edit]

Photo of adult Dolly Varden trout in spawning colors
Dolly Varden trout (S. m. malma) in spawning coloration

The first recorded use of the name "Dolly Varden" was applied to members of S. confluentus caught in the McCloud River in northern California in the early 1870s. In his book, Inland Fishes of California, Peter Moyle recounts a letter sent to him on March 24, 1974, from Valerie Masson Gomez:

My grandmother's family operated a summer resort at Upper Soda Springs on the Sacramento River just north of the present town of Dunsmuir, California. She lived there all her life and related to us in her later years her story about the naming of the Dolly Varden trout. She said that some fishermen were standing on the lawn at Upper Soda Springs looking at a catch of the large trout from the McCloud River that were called 'calico trout' because of their spotted, colorful markings. They were saying that the trout should have a better name. My grandmother, then a young girl of 15 or 16, had been reading Charles Dickens' Barnaby Rudge in which there appears a character named Dolly Varden; also the vogue in fashion for women at that time (middle 1870s) was called "Dolly Varden", a dress of sheer figured muslin worn over a bright-colored petticoat. My grandmother had just gotten a new dress in that style and the red-spotted trout reminded her of her printed dress. She suggested to the men looking down at the trout, 'Why not call them "Dolly Varden"?' They thought it a very appropriate name and the guests that summer returned to their homes (many in the San Francisco Bay area) calling the trout by this new name. David Starr Jordan, while at Stanford University, included an account of this naming of the Dolly Varden Trout in one of his books.

In 1874, Livingston Stone, a naturalist working for the U.S. government, wrote of this fish:

Also called at (Upper) Soda Springs the 'Varden' trout. … The handsomest trout, and, on the whole, having the most perfect form of all the trout we saw on the McCloud. Also, the only fish that had colored spots. This one was profusely spotted over most of the body with reddish golden spots. ... The local name at (Upper) Soda Springs is the Dolly Varden.[6]

Although the name "Dolly Varden" was originally given to the bull trout of the McCloud River, bull trout (S. confluentus) and Dolly Varden trout (S. malma) were considered the same species (S. malma) until 1978. Thus the common name "Dolly Varden" gained acceptance for S malma for over 100 years. Additionally, the arctic char (S. alpinus) and Russian subspecies have been referred to as Dolly Varden.[7] It is known as belyi golets in Russian.[8]

Subspecies[edit]

  • Northern Dolly Varden (S. m. malma) (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Southern Dolly Varden (S. m. lordi (1866) or S. m. krascheninnikovi (1938))
  • Miyabe charr (S. m. miyabei) (Oshima, 1938)

Description[edit]

Photo of sea-run Dolly Varden next to fly rod
Anadromous Dolly Varden

The back and sides are olive green or muddy gray, shading to white on the belly. The body has scattered pale yellow or pinkish-yellow spots. There are no black spots or wavy lines on the body or fins. Small red spots are present on the lower sides. These are frequently indistinct. The fins are plain and unmarked except for a few light spots on the base of the caudal fin rays. S. malma is extremely similar in appearance to the bull trout (S. confluentus) and arctic char (S. alpinus), so much so that they are sometimes referred to as "native char" without a distinction.[9]

Range[edit]

Map showing U.S. range of Dolly Varden
U.S. Range Map for Salvelinus malma, Dolly Varden Trout

The Dolly Varden trout is found in coastal waters of the North Pacific from Puget Sound north along the British Columbia Coast to the Alaska Peninsula and into the eastern Aleutian Islands, along the Bering Sea and the Arctic Sea to the Mackenzie River.[10] The range in Asia extends south through the Kamchatka Peninsula into northern Japan.

Life cycle[edit]

Dolly Varden are found in three distinct forms. A semi-anadramous or sea-run form migrates from fresh water and spends some time in the ocean or saltwater bays and estuaries to feed before returning to fresh water to spawn. Fluvial forms live in moderate to large freshwater riverine environments and migrate into smaller tributaries to spawn. A third form is found in deep, cold lakes, from where they eventually migrate into tributary streams to spawn. Most populations of the northern Dolly Varden (S. m. malma) are semi-andromous, while more fluvial and lacustrine populations are found among the southern Dolly Varden (S. m. lordi).

Conservation[edit]

In the early 20th century, the Dolly Varden (still including bull trout, and often confused with arctic char) suffered from a reputation as an undesirable predator of fish such as salmon, steelhead and cutthroat trout. Despite co-evolving with these other species for thousands of years, Dolly Varden were accused of indiscriminately feeding on eggs and fry of other species to their detriment.[11] Between 1921 and 1941, the Territory of Alaska, supported by the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, had an official extermination program that paid bounties on Dolly Varden.[7] In the Iliamna Lake/Kvichak River region in southwest Alaska, the bounty was 2.5 cents per Dolly Varden tail turned into the territorial tax collector. Locals would trap Dolly Varden in nets and weirs, string 40 tails on a hoop of bailing wire and smoke them over a wood fire. One hoop would be worth one dollar. The fish carcasses would be used for dog food. The hoops of fishtails were then used as currency to pay for supplies, or in some reports, airfare with local bush pilots.[12]

The northern Dolly Varden in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Northwest Territories is listed as a species of special concern.[13]

Fishing[edit]

The Dolly Varden is considered and regulated as a game fish in the U.S. and Canada. Dolly Varden make up a sizable percentage of the catch in Alaskan subsistence fisheries where salmon are not abundant.[14]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "ynonyms of Salvelinus malma (Walbaum, 1792)". Fishbase.org. Retrieved 2014-02-22. 
  2. ^ a b Behnke, Robert J.; Tomelleri, Joseph R. (illustrator) (2002). "Dolly Varden". Trout and Salmon of North America. New York: The Free Press. pp. 313–322. ISBN 0-7432-2220-2. 
  3. ^ M.W. Kowalchuk, C.D. Sawatzky and J.D Reist (2010). A Review of the Taxonomic Structure within Dolly Varden, Salvelinus malma (Walbaum 1792), of North America (PDF). Winnipeg, Canada: Fisheries and Oceans Canada/Pêches et Océans Canada, Freshwater Institute/Institut des eaux douces. 
  4. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (). "Salvelinus malma miyabei" in FishBase. version.
  5. ^ Cavendar, T.M. (1978). "Taxonomy and distribution of the bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, (Suckley) from the American Northwest". California Fish and Game 64 (3): 139–174. 
  6. ^ Stone, Livingston (1874). VI. Report of Operations During 1872 at the United States Salmon-Hatching Establishment on the M’Cloud River, and on the California Salmonidae generally; with a list of Specimens Collected. By Livingstone Stone. In: United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Part II. Report of the Commissioner for 1872 and 1873. A- Inquiry into the Decrease of the Food Fishes. B- The Propagation of Food-Fishes in the Waters of the United States. With Supplementary Papers. (Report). Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 203–207.
  7. ^ a b Behnke, Robert J.; Williams, Ted (2007). "Dolly Varden Fall 1985". About Trout: The Best of Robert J. Behnke from Trout Magazine. Globe Pequot. pp. 39–44. ISBN 978-1-59921-203-6. 
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "Washington's Native Char". Fishing & Shellfishing. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved 2014-02-05. 
  10. ^ Haas, Gordon R. and McPhail, J. D. (1991). "Systematics and Distributions of Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) and Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in North America". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (Ottawa: NRC Research Press) 48: 2191–2211. 
  11. ^ Decicco, Fred (May 2005). "Dolly Varden: Beautiful and Misunderstood Dolly Varden's Reputation as Varmint Undeserved". Alaska Fish and Wildlife News. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Retrieved 2014-01-29. 
  12. ^ Dufresne, Frank (2002). "Fishtail Poker". In Merrit J. I. The Best of Field and Stream-100 Years of Great Writing From America's Premier Sporting Magazine. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Press. pp. 289–293. 
  13. ^ "Information Summary on the Proposed Listing of Dolly Varden (Northern Form) as "Special Concern" Under the Species at Risk Act" (PDF). Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Retrieved 2014-01-28. 
  14. ^ "Alaska Subsistence Salmon Fisheries 2009 Annual Report" (PDF). Alaska Department of Fish and Game-Division of Subsistence. June 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
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