Overview

Brief Summary

Diagnosis 1) skin of dorsum shagreened and with a few other tubercles, that of venter smooth; no dorsolateral folds; 2) tympanum distinct, its length 1/2 to 2/3 eye length; 3) snout subacuminate in dorsal view, rounded in lateral profile; canthus rostralis distinct; 4) upper eyelid usually narrower than interorbital distance; no cranial crests; 5) vomerine odontophores between choanae, low, oval; 6) males with vocal slits and nuptial thumb pads; 7) first finger longer than second; outer fingers bearing truncate discs; 8) fingers lacking lateral keels; 9) no ulnar tubercles; 10) no folds or tubercles on tarsus or heel; 11) two metatarsal tubercles, inner oval, 1% to 2 times size of round outer; supernumerary plantar tubercles pungent; 12) toes with narrow lateral keels; toe discs round, smaller than those of fingers; 13) brown with darker markings; throat and chest brown with small cream spots (or not), other ventral surfaces densely stippled with brown; posterior surfaces of thighs dark brown; 14) adults moderate in size, males 26.8-27.6 mm, females 34.0-39.4 mm snout-vent length
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Distribution

Range Description

This species can be found on the eastern slopes of the Andes in Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, and Tarija from 950-2,200m asl) and northwestern Argentina (Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán Provinces from 700-1,200m asl).
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Chile central (Concepcion)
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Known from moderate elevations (960-1550 m) on the eastern flanks of the Andes in northern Argentina and adjacent Bolivia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

herbacea
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Diagnostic Description

Adult morphology Head as wide as or slightly wider than body, wider than long; snout subacuminate in dorsal view, rounded in lateral profile (snout deep, top of snout essentially parallel with border of lip when viewed from side); nostrils weakly protuberant, directed laterally (slightly dorsolaterally in large females); canthus rostralis distinct, its edge rounded, straight; loreal region very slightly concave, sloping abruptly to lips; lips weakly flared in large females; upper eyelid width 73.3-100.0 % of interorbital distance, bearing a few non-pungent tubercles on posterior one-third; no cranial crests; tympanum distinct, superficial, only the uppermost edge of annulus concealed by supratympanic fold; supratympanic fold prominent, ending in a subconical tubercle dorsal to insertion of forearm; tympanum virtually round, its length 46.7-64.1 % of eye length, separated from eye by a distance of less than one-half its diameter; postrictal tubercles large, subconical; skin on rest of dorsal surfaces of head finely shagreened to smooth with low tubercles scattered on occiput; choanae small, not concealed by palatal shelf of maxillary arch, slightly wider than long; vomerine odontophores low, oval in outline, situated between choanae, anterior edge of odontophore posterior to or at a line drawn through centers of choanae; each odontophore about size of a choana, bearing a row of 3-6 teeth, separated medially by a distance equal to an odontophore width; in smaller specimens, odontophores smaller, more widely separated, and appearing to be slightly more posteriad to choanae; tongue longer than wide (oval), its posterior border not notched, posterior 1/4 not adherent to floor of mouth; long vocal slits posterolateral to tongue in adult males. Skin of dorsum shagreened and bearing few other tubercles (1-2 pair above scapulae, some smaller ones on flanks); indefinite skin fold from top of supratympanic fold to about level of sacrum (lower than a dorsolateral fold); skin of upper surfaces of limbs like dorsum except shagreening finer; skin of lower surfaces smooth; discoidal folds prominent, well anteriad to groin; skin below vent areolate; vent not enclosed into sheath; no ulnar tubercles; palmar tubercle divided into minute outer and large median tubercle, median twice size of oval thenar tubercle; supernumerary palmar tubercle pungent, subconical; subarticular tubercles conical, large; fingers long and slender, bearing lateral keels (keel most notable on median surface of II); tips of digits swollen forming truncate discs on III and IV; tips of I and II rounded apically, scarcely swollen; circumferential grooves evident distally on III and IV, no evidence of ventral pads on I or II; when adpressed equally, I longer than II; thumbs of adult males bearing white, glandular nuptial pads. No tubercles or folds on heel or tarsus; inner metatarsal tubercle twice as long as wide, not compressed, approximately 1% to 2 times size of round, subconcial outer; 2-4 prominent pungent, non-conical supernumerary plantar tubercles, in addition to those at bases of toes II-IV, one (largest) in middle of sole about equidistant between base of toe IV and outer metatarsal tubercle; subarticular tubercles large, conical; toes lacking webbing, with very narrow lateral keels; toes long and slender, tips slightly dilated forming discs (smaller and less truncate than those of outer fingers); heels overlapping when flexed hind legs held at right angles to sagittal plane; hind legs short, when hind limb adpressed to body, heel reaching to a point between anterior edge of eye and midpoint between eye and nostril; shank 44.8-56.8 % of the snout-vent length. Brown above with ill-defined darker markings (interorbital bar, hourglass mark between occiput and sacrum, suprainguinal blotches); canthal - supratympanic stripe dark brown, very distinct; side of head darker than top of head, labial bars ill-defined; dark postaxillary patch, otherwise flanks not marked; limb bars about as wide as interspaces, slightly oblique; throat, breast, sides of venter, and undersides of limbs densely stippled with brown; center of belly not pigmented; posterior surfaces of thighs dark brown. In life, is tan-brown to brown with darker brown to black markings. The ventral surfaces are gray to grayish brown. The concealed surfaces of the hind limbs are light brown with a slight orange wash to the groin and behind the knee. The undersides of the limbs are flesh-colored. The iris is chocolate brown.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This terrestrial species occurs in the leaf-litter of humid montane forests. Eggs are laid under logs on the forest floor and develop directly. It can tolerate a small amount of habitat disturbance and can be found in clearings on slopes as well as roadside ditches, but cannot tolerate more intensive habitat modification such as intensive logging or livestock grazing.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Madagascar
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Cyclicity

ano todo
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Life Cycle

perene
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Reproduction

sementes, produz sem viáveis, germina no escuro
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Oreobates discoidalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Alcalóides (vincristina, vimblastina)(7)
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Esteban Lavilla, Claudia Cortez, Steffen Reichle, Ignacio De la Riva, Jörn Köhler

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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LC. Least Concern.
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Population

Population
It is uncommon throughout its range. It is recorded every year in Argentina.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat loss/degradation due to wood extraction and agricultural expansion are threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In Bolivia, this species occurs in the Amboro, Tariquia and Aguarague protected areas. In Argentina, some populations are protected in Calilegua and Baritú National Parks.
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Wikipedia

Eleutherodactylus discoidalis

The Tucuman robber frog, Oreobates discoidalis, is a species of frog in the Craugastoridae family. It is found in Argentina and Bolivia. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Esteban Lavilla, Claudia Cortez, Steffen Reichle, Ignacio De la Riva, Jörn Köhler (2010). "Oreobates discoidalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
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