Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is present on Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) and on the mainland of Africa between the Niger River in south-eastern Nigeria and the lower Sanaga River, Cameroon.

There are two subspecies: the subspecies S. a. alleni is endemic to Bioko, while S. a. cameronensis is present in Nigeria and Cameroon including Oban, Mamfe, Obrura and Mkpani.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Geographic Range

Galago alleni lives in the rainforest of west-central Africa. It has been found nearly as far north as southern Nigeria, west to the delta of the Niger river, as far east as the southwestern corner of the Central African Republic, and south to southern Congo.

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

  • Nowak, R. 1991. Galagos, or Bush Babies. Pp. 408-409 in Walker's Mammals of the World, Vol. 1, 5th Edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Wolfheim, J. H. 1983. Primates of the World. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Flannery, S. 2001. "Galago alleni" (On-line ). Primate Info Net. Accessed 10/15/02 at http://www. primate.wisc.edu/pin/factsheets/galago_alleni.html.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Galago alleni has thick fur that can range from grey to brown in color with a rust tint on the limbs. The ventral fur tends to be lighter ranging from grey to a yellowed white. This species has distinct dark patches of fur around its eyes. The tail is long and bushy. Head and body length ranges from 155 to 240 mm and mass from 200 to 445 grams.

Like other members of the genus, G. alleni has unusually large eyes, which help to adapt this species to a nocturnal life style. These large eyes have a reflective retina, the tapetum, which facilitates light detection. Interestingly, these animals are color-blind, with only rods in the retina and no true macula.

Like many of their relatives, Allen's bush babies have flexible, naked ears that can moved backward, and be bent down to the base. The nose has a specialized leather-like covering with slits. Galago alleni has the characteristic toothcomb common in galagos, made up of the four incisors and two canines. They are known for their strong hindlimbs and leaping ability.

Range mass: 200 to 445 g.

Range length: 155 to 240 mm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

  • Napier, J. 1967. A Handbook of Living Primates. London: Academic Press Inc..
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Found in lowland and montane primary and secondary forest; also recorded in farmbush. A nocturnal species that forages on the ground and low and mid-canopy.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Galago alleni is most frequently found in the understory of mature primary wet forests. This species is rarely present in secondary growth forests.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest ; rainforest

  • Muller, E., B. Grzimek. 1990. Lorises and Galagos. Pp. 77-95 in Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 2. New York: McGraw Publishing Co..
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Allen's bush babies are primarily frugivores, especially eating fallen fruit. Fruit makes up an estimated three quarters (75%) of their diet. They also eat insects and occasionally small mammals, which may function as protein supplements.

Animal Foods: mammals; amphibians; eggs; insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods

Plant Foods: fruit

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Ecosystem Roles

G. alleni is an important predator of insects and possibly disperses the seeds of the fruits that they eat.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Predation

When feeling threatened, G. alleni has the ability to move more quickly by running on its hind legs. When it spots a predator it quickly jumps great distances from branch to branch. Galago alleni uses alarm calls to alert conspecifics of the danger.

Little is known about their predators, although arboreal and volant predators, such as cats and owls, are likely to be their main threats. Humans pose the greatest known threat through habitat destruction.

Known Predators:

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known predators

Galago alleni is prey of:
Homo sapiens

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known prey organisms

Galago alleni preys on:
Arthropoda
Insecta
Amphibia
Mammalia

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

Allen's bush babies communicate through 3 categories of sound--social, aggression, and defense. Social communication tends to be in the form of clicking noises from young to mother, sounding something like "tsic." A maternal call to the group sounds something like a soft croak. More powerful noises are for large groups to assemble. If an alarm call is heard, it can cause G. alleni to gather and mob a predator such as a cat. The aggressive call sounds like "quee, quee, quee."

There is also olfactory communication through urine which marks the territory of G. alleni. This urine territory marking was found to increase by about four times when the territory overlapped with another galago. Galago alleni is very territorial and aggression is frequently seen between males. The aggressive behavior is communicated through an upright posture, on the hind legs, and a vocal hissing sound. Courtship is communicated by mutual grooming and chasing.

Galago alleni has the ability to make many facial expressions, which can communicate a great deal. Facial expressions can be defensive, threatening, or protective, and are also associated with maternal clicks.

Galagos use tactile communication. Upon first encounter with a conspecific, they may sniff each other nose to nose. Then they will touch nose to face. Social grooming is their most important form of touch, and this helps them bond with one another.

Galago alleni has an exceptionally well-developed sense of vision (though lacking color vision) at night. They also have acute hearing, sense of smell, and use tactile cues to sense their environment.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: scent marks

Perception Channels: visual ; acoustic

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

In captivity G. alleni has been found to live about 12 years. This species has been known to live 8 years in the wild.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
8 (high) years.

Range lifespan

Status: captivity:
12 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
12.0 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Observations: Although it has been reported that these animals live up to 12 years (Bernhard Grzimek 1990), there are few detailed studies and hence maximum longevity must be classified as unknown.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Males seek to control home ranges that overlap those of several females. Intense competition between males for access to female home ranges is observed. Male dominance seems to be correlated with body mass, with larger males being the most dominant.

Mating System: polygynous

Females have one baby at a time. Births occur year round in some parts of the range and in seasonal peaks in other parts of the range. In Gabon, where births occur year-round, there is an increase of births from January to April. Peaks in births occur during times of the year when fruits and insects are most abundant. Gestation is unusually long (around 133 days). Birth weights are low (5 to 10 grams) when compared to other animals of the same size. The female separates herself from the group for two weeks when giving birth. Weaning occurs at about 6 weeks of age. Young Allen's bush babies become sexually mature at around 8 to 10 months of age.

Breeding interval: Females typically have one pregnancy per year.

Breeding season: Breeding occurs seasonally and year-round in different parts of the range.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Average gestation period: 133 days.

Average weaning age: 6 weeks.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 8 to 10 months.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 8 to 10 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 24 g.

Average gestation period: 133 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.3.

Galago alleni build nests for their young and sometimes share the care of young with other females with infants. Females carry their young in their mouths. When they leave the nest to forage at night, they carry their dependent offspring to a hiding place. The female leaves her young in hiding while she searches for food. Females nurse their young for about six weeks.

The role of males in parental care appears to be indirect. Because males aggressively maintain their ranges, which overlap those of several females, it can be argued that they help to defend the young from invading males.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Male, Female)

  • Muller, E., B. Grzimek. 1990. Lorises and Galagos. Pp. 77-95 in Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 2. New York: McGraw Publishing Co..
  • Nowak, R. 1991. Galagos, or Bush Babies. Pp. 408-409 in Walker's Mammals of the World, Vol. 1, 5th Edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Rowe, N. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to Living Primates. East Hampton: Pogonias Press.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Oates, J.F. & Bearder, S.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a relatively restricted range, but does relatively well in secondary forest. Habitat change has slowed in some parts of its range, and this species is not actively hunted. As it remains locally common in appropriate forested habitats, and there is no evidence of a significant decline that would warrant listing in a higher category of threat, the species is here listed as Least Concern.

History
  • 1996
    Lower Risk/near threatened
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Galago alleni is on the IUCN Red List as a lower risk threatened species, and is on the CITES Appendix II list. The greatest threat to Allen's bush babies is human impact on their habitat. Expanding human populations, and a civil war in Nigeria, have drastically decreased the extent of available habitat. Because G. alleni so strongly prefers primary forests to secondary forests this destruction of their habitat is a major concern for this species.

Even though human hunting does not appear to be a significant problem for the species, laws protect G. alleni from being hunted or captured without authorization. A reserve also exists in Cameroon where G. alleni has been reported, but many more reserves are needed.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix ii

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
Locally common in appropriate habitat. Highest density in montane forest, and lower densities in primary lowland forest (Ambrose 2003).

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
The major threat to this species is habitat loss.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. It is recorded from Cross River National Park (Nigeria), as well as from Afe Mountain, Korup and Banyang-Nbo National Parks (Cameroon), and the major protected areas on Bioko.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There do not seem to be any negative impacts of G. alleni on humans.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

There is no significant demand for G. alleni, and it is not routinely hunted or captured. It is also rare that Allen's bush babies are exported for the pet trade or research.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Cross River bushbaby

The Cross River bushbaby (Galago cameronensis) is a species of primate in the Galagidae family. It lives in northwestern Camaroon and southeastern Nigeria.[1] Its head and body length is 7 inches with a 10 inch tail.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 124. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100134.
  2. ^ Oates, J. F. & Bearder, S. (2008). Sciurocheirus alleni ssp. cameronensis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  3. ^ "Answers.com Animal Encyclopedia Northern Greater Bushbaby". http://www.answers.com/topic/northern-greater-bushbaby.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Bioko Allen's bushbaby

The Bioko Allen's bushbaby (Galago alleni) is a species of primate in the Galagidae family. It is found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Nigeria. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests.[2]

References

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 118. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3.
  2. ^ a b Oates, J. F. & Bearder, S. (2008). Sciurocheirus alleni. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 1 January 2009.


Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!