Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Occurs in the mountainous area near the border of Gila and Pina counties in Arizona.

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Range Description

The species is distributed in the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, and in the United States in Arizona and New Mexico, at elevations of 1,050 to 2,500 m asl (Blum et al. 1998, Paredes et al. 2000) .
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Historic Range:
U.S.A. (AZ)

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Ariz., N.Mex.; Mexico (Chihuahua).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants few to many branched. Stems usually erect, cylindric, 10-40 × 5-10 cm; ribs 8-13, slightly undulate; areoles 10-15 mm apart. Spines [8-]9-18 per areole, straight or contorted; radial spines 7-14 per areole, appressed, yellowish to brownish, becoming gray, 5-25 mm; central spines 1-4 (c Arizona and Mexico) or 3-8 (elsewhere) per areole, spreading to projecting outward, brownish yellow to reddish black, becoming gray, terete (c Arizona) or angled to terete (elsewhere), 15-50 mm. Flowers 5.5-7 × 3.5-5 cm; flower tube 25-35 mm; flower tube spines 5-15 mm, hairs to 2 mm; inner tepals bright orange-red to dark red distally, proximally paler (bases sometimes yellow or whitish), 25-40 × (5-)10-15 mm, tips thick and rigid; anthers pink to brick red or purple; nectar chamber 6-10 mm. Fruits green, brownish tinged, 20-30 mm, pulp white. 2n = 22.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Echinocereus coccineus Engelmann var. arizonicus (Rose ex Orcutt) D. J. Ferguson; E. triglochidiatus Engelmann var. arizonicus (Rose ex Orcutt) L. D. Benson
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Type Information

Type collection for Echinocereus arizonicus Rose ex Orcutt
Catalog Number: US 73376
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. R. Orcutt
Year Collected: 1922
Locality: Gila / Pinal, Arizona, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Orcutt, C. R. 1926. Cactography. 3.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: It is found in oak woodlands and chaparral at 1050-1410 m (possibly 1150-1600 m), annual precipitation 48 cm, in a mixture of Interior Chaparral and Madrean Evergreen woodland. It usually grows in clumps among granite boulders with a dense shrub overstory on open slopes or the understory of a more open canopy. The terrain throughout its range is rugged with steep-walled canyons, and boulder-pile ridges and slopes. Cacti are found scattered about on open slopes, in narrow cracks between boulders, and in the understory of shrubs (USFWS 1984). It is normally found on Orthoclase-rich granite of late Cretaceous age; other parent materials in the area include volcanic tuff, mid-Tertiary age dacite and perhaps rhyolite (pH about 6).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
E. arizonicus occurs in chaparral and oak forest (Paredes et al. 2000). The species grows in wooded hills, loamy sandy soil and open shrub desert (Blum et al. 1998).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Chihuahuan Desert, desert scrub, interior chaparral, desert grasslands, steep walls of canyons, limestone hills, among granite boulders; 1400-1900m.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20

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General Ecology

Research is needed to determine susceptibility to fire and whether fire suppression and livestock grazing have contributed to habitat loss.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Apr-May; fruiting May-Jul.
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Reproduction

While there is a paucity of species-specific information on seed dispersal, it is known within the genus of Echinocereus that mammals do eat and disperse their seeds. Ringtails, and gray foxes are known to eat the fruits of cacti species in Echinocereus (Willson 1993).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T2 - Imperiled

Reasons: Endemic to a mountainous area in south-central Arizona. Overcollection is a major threat, as is the potential of habitat loss due to open-pit mining.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Baker, M.

Reviewer/s
Goettsch, B.K.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species has a wide range with an extent of occurrence of over 20,000 km2 , it is often abundant and mining affects a small portion of its range. Hence the species is listed as Least Concern.
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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Endangered
Date Listed: 11/26/1979
Lead Region:   Southwest Region (Region 2) 
Where Listed:


Population detail:

Listing status: E

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Echinocereus coccineus arizonicus, see its USFWS Species Profile

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Population

Population
Echinocereus arizonicus is widespread in the south of Arizona and in north and central Sonora. It is often abundant.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Degree of Threat: Unknown

Comments: Illegal harvest; may become more threatened by expansion of open-pit copper mining.

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Major Threats
The main threat for this species is mining.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The subspecies arizonicus (under the name Echinocereus triglochidiatus arizonicus) is listed as Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Federal Register 2008).
A very small part of the species range occur within protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Echinocereus arizonicus

Echinocereus arizonicus Rose ex Orcutt, [2] is a species of cactus native to the Chihuahuan Desert region of Chihuahua, southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona, as well as in the Superstition and Mescal Mountains of Central Arizona.[3] Common names include "Arizona claret-cup cactus" and "Arizona hedgehog cactus."[1]


Echinocereus arizonicus has deep red to bright orange-red flowers, sometimes with a lighter yellowish-green center.[1][4]

References[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Some populations of diploid claret-cup cacti in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico have recently been named Echinocereus arizonicus subsp. nigrihorridispinus W. Blum & Rutow, including numerous eastern populations previously misidentified as other taxa. Subspecies arizonicus, of conservation concern, remains known only from central Arizona. Infraspecific taxa within E. arizonicus are not treated formally here because their taxonomic boundaries remain controversial. 

 Echinocereus arizonicus superficially resembles the dioecious tetraploid E. coccineus var. rosei of the Chihuahuan Desert, and several of its populations were mapped by L. D. Benson (1969, 1982) as part of E. triglochidatus var. neomexicanus (Standley) Standley ex W. T. Marshall. Echinocereus arizonicus subsp. nigrihorridispinus superficially resembles the partially sympatric, synoecious tetraploid recently named E. santaritensis W. Blum & Rutow (a hermaphroditic geographic race of E. coccineus), which has much longer hairs on the flowers, a narrower flower tube, and relatively slender spines. Irrespective of the misleading vegetative similarities between diploid E. arizonicus and its polyploid relatives, E. arizonicus differs strongly from both varieties of the diploid E. triglochidiatus.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Treated as Echinocereus coccineus var. arizonicus by Kartesz (1994 checklist, 1999 Synthesis), following N.P. Taylor's [revised] work on Echinocereus (pers. comm. J. Kartesz to L. Morse, 25Nov99). USFWS tracks as E. triglochidiatus var. arizonicus (Benson 1982; Taylor 1985). Treated by Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003b) as the distinct species Echinocereus arizonicus.

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